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例：We do farm work as the old peasant teaches us.
As(it is)in your country, we grow wheat in the north and rice in the south. 正如(像) 你们国家一样，我们北方种植小麦，南方种植水稻。
(2) as＋形容词／副词原级＋（a ／an）＋名词＋as ;
否定式：not as/so --- as
例：He is as good a player as his sister．
(3) such + n. + as to do 如此……以致于……
例：She is such a fool as to believe what he said.
(4) so + adj./adv. + as to do sth 如此……以致于……
例：He was so strong as to carry the heavy box.
(5) such --- as--- 象……之类的…… （接名词或定语从句）
例：He wished to be such a man as Lei Feng was.
(6) the same ＋名词＋as 和……一样的…… （接名词或定语从句）
例：He is not the same man as he used to be 他不是从前的那样子了。
(7) as 引导非限制性定语从句
例：As is known to us, knowledge is power.众所周知，知识就是力量。
例：We get wiser as we get older. 随着我们长大，我们也变得越来越聪明。
例：As it was getting very late, we soon turned back.
例：Child as he is, he knows much about science.
(1) prefer to do sth
例：I prefer to stay at home. 我宁愿呆在家里。
(2) prefer doing sth
例：I prefer playing in defence. 我喜欢打防守。
(3) prefer sb to do sth
例：Would you prefer me to stay? 你愿意我留下来吗？
(4) prefer to do sth rather than do sth ……宁愿…...而不愿.…".
例句：I prefer to stay at home rather than go out
(5) prefer doing sth to doing sth
例：I prefer watching football to playing it.
(6) prefer sth to sth
例：I prefer tea to coffee. 我要茶不要咖啡。
(1) be doing sth ---- when ---
例：He was still smiling when the door opened and his wife came in.
(2) be about to do sth --- when ---
例：We were about to start when it began to rain.
(3) had not done sth --- when ---/ hardly --- when ---
例： He had not fallen asleep when the telephone rang.
(4) had just done ---- when ---
例：I had just gone to bed after a very hard day when the phone rang.
(1) It +seems + that从句
例：It seemed that everyone was satisfied. 看来好像每个人都很满意。
(2) It seems to sb that ---
例：It seems to me that she is right. 我看她是对的，
(3) There seems to be ----
例：There seems to be a heavy rain. 看上去要有一场大雨。
(4) It seems as if ----
例：It seemed that she couldn't come to class.看样子她不能来上课了。
(1) She is taller than I by three inches. 她比我高三英寸
(2) There is one year between us. 我们之间相差一岁。
(3) She is three years old than I 她比我大三岁。
(4) They have increased the price by 50%. 他们把价格上涨了50%
(1) what 引导主语从句
例：What surprised me is that everybody seemed to be very indifferent to her.
[ indifferent adj.不关心的;冷漠的]
(2) what 引导宾语从句
例：We can learn what we do not know. 我们能学会我们不懂的东西。
(3) what 引导表语从句
例：That is what I want. 那正是我所要的。
(4) what 引导同位语从句
例：I have no idea what they are talking about. 我不知道他们正在谈论什么.
(1) too．．．to do sth．
例：Politics is too important to be left to the politicians．
（＝Politics is so important that it can't be left to the politicians．）
(2) only too --- to do sth
例：I shall be only too pleased to get home. 我要回到家里就非常高兴。
(3) too + adj + for sth
例：These shoes are much too small for me. 我穿这双鞋太小了。
(4) too + adj + a + n.
例：This is too difficult a text for me. 这篇课文对我来说太难了。
(5) can't … too +形容词 无论……也不为过
例：We cannot emphasize the importance of protecting our eyes too much.
(1) where 引导的定语从句
例：This is the house where he lived last year. 这就是他去年住过的房子。
(2) where 引导的状语从句
例：Where there is a will，there is a way．有志者事竟成。
He left his key where he could find．他将钥匙放在易找到的地方。
I will go where I want to go．我要去我想去的地方。
(3) where 引导的表语从句
例：This is where you are wrong. 这正是你错的地方。
注：引导状语从句的where= 介词+the place where （定语从句）
例：Go where(ver) you are most needed.到最需要你的地方去。
(1) wish that sb did sth 希望某人现在做某事
例：I wish I were as strong as you. 我希望和你一样强壮。
(2) wish that sb had done sth 希望某人过去做某事
例： I wish you had told me earlier 要是你早点告诉我就好了。
(3) wish that sb would/could do sth 希望某人将来做某事
例：I wish you would succeed this time. 我希望你这次会成功。
10、would rather 句型：
(1) would rather do sth than do sth 宁愿做……而不愿做……
例：She would rather die than turn against his motherland.
(2) would rather have done sth 宁愿过去做过某事
例：I would rather have taken his advice. 我宁愿过去接受他的意见。
(3) would rather sb had done sth 宁愿某人过去做过某事
例：I would rather I had passed the examination last week.
(4) would rather sb did sth 宁愿某人现在或将来做某事
例： Who would you rather went with you? 你宁愿谁和你一起去？
(1) before sb can/ could … 某人还没来得及……
例：Before I could get in a word ，he had measured me．
(2) It will be +时间+ before + 还有多长时间……
例：It will be 4 years before he graduates. 他还有四年时间变毕业了。
(3) had done some time before （才……）
例：We had sailed four days and four nights before we saw land.
(4) had not done --- before --- 不到……就……
例：We hadn’t run a mile before he felt tired.
(5) It was not +一段时间+ before 不多久就……
例：It wasn’t two years before he left the country.
(1) It is ／was ＋被强调部分＋that（who）．．．
例：It was I who wrote to my uncle yesterday．
(2) Is/was it + 被强调部分 + that (who) ...
例：Was it your brother that you met in the street?
(3) Where/who/what/how等特殊疑问词 + is/was it that ...
例：How is it that you will go to visit her tomorrow?
(4) do +谓语动词 （强调谓语）
例：They do know the place well. 他们的确很熟悉那个地方。
(1) should like to/ would like to/ would love to have done sth.
例：You should like to have written to your mother.
(2) was / were going to do sth.（用过去将来时态表示原打算做什么）
例：Lucy was going to watch a basketball match.
(3) was / were going to have done sth. 表示未完成原来的计划和安排
例：Lily was going to have cleaned her bedroom, but she had no time.
(4) expect, intend, hope, mean, plan, promise, suppose, think,
want, wish ．．．
例：She had supposed him to be very rich. 她原以为他很有钱。
(5) wish that …had done sth.表示过去未曾实现的愿望．
例：I wish he had been here yesterday. 要是他昨天在这儿就好了。
(6) 情态动词should ,would, could, might, ought to等后接不定式的完成时，
should have done =ought to have done 本应该做而没做
would have done = 本来就会去做某事而没做
could have done = 本可以做某事而没做
might have done 本可以做而没做
例：They ought to have apologized. 他们本该道歉的。
例：The room is twice larger than that one．这个房间是那个房间的两倍大。
There is 30 times greater chance of being hit by lightening than being attacked by a shark.
例：The room is three times as large as that one．
(3)倍数＋the size ／height／length ／weight ／width of．．．
例：The room is three times the size of that one．
15、 It is ------ that ---- 句型
(1) It is ＋ 名词 ＋ 从句
It is a fact/an honour --- that +陈述语气从句
例：It is a fact that the earth moves around the sun.
It is a pity/shame/no wonder that + 虚拟语气从句
例：It is a pity that he should not come. 他若不来可真是遗憾。
(2) It is ＋ 形容词 ＋ 从句
It is natural/important/necessary/strange that + 虚拟语气从句
例：It is important that enough money be collected to fund the project.
It is obvious/apparent/clear that + 陈述语气从句
例：It is clear that she doesn't like the dress at all.
(3) It ＋ 过去分词 ＋ 从句
It is generally/commonly believed /accepted/thought/held that ...
例：It is universally acknowledged that trees are indispensable to us.
It is suggested/ordered/desired/requested/decided that +虚拟语气从句
例句：It is suggested that we should hold a meeting next week.
16、It ＋ 不及物动词 ＋ 从句
(1) It seems that
例：It seems that Alice is not coming to the party at all.
(2) It happened that...……很偶然.
例：It happened that I won the football lottery last week.
(3) It occurred to sb that...
例句：It suddenly occurred to me that I knew how to solve that problem.
(4) It appears that....
例： It appears that Tom might change his mind. 看来汤姆会改变主意。
例：English is not so difficult a subject as Russia.
Their bones are not as thick as adults’.
例：The weather of this year is a lot hotter than that of last year.
例：The restoration was so bad that it made some of the buildings less secure than they had been before.
(4) The + ~er + S + V, ~~~ the + ~er + S + V ~~~
The + more + Adj + S + V, ~~~ the + more + Adj + S + V ~~~
例：The harder you work, the more progress you make.
The more books we read, the more learned we become.
(5) more…. than…与其说…倒不如说
例：Smith is more diligent than intelligent.
(6) no +形容词比较级+ than = as +形容词的反义词+ as
例：I am no better at English than you. 我的英语不比你好。
(7) that 在前后比较中代替不可数名词和特指的单数可数名词
例：The traditional picture of St Nicholas is quite different from that
of Father Christmas.
(8) one 在前后比较中代替泛指的单数可数名词。
例：I prefer a flat in Beijing to one in Nanjing, because I want to live near
my Mom's. 与南京相比我更喜欢在北京有一套公寓，因为我想跟我妈妈住一起。
(9) those 在前后比较中代替 特指的复数可数名词。
例：Salaries are higher here than those in my country.
(10) ones 在前后比较中代替泛指的复数可数名词
例：Cars do cause us some health problems --- in fact far more serious ones
than mobile phones do.汽车确实给我们的身体健康带来问题，事实上比手机造成的问题更严重。
(1) What a + Adj + N + S + V!
例：What an important thing it is to keep our promise!
(2) How + Adj + a + N + V!（多么...！）
例：How important a thing it is to keep our promise!
(3) How + S + V!
例句：How I want to go to Beijing. 我多么想去北京啊！
(1) must have done sth 一定做过某事 否定形式：can't have done
例：She must have come here last night. 她一定是昨晚来的。
She can't have gone there 她不可能到那儿去。
(2) may have done sth 可能做过某事 否定形式：may not have done
例：Philip may have been hurt seriously in the car accident.
(3) might have done sth 或许做过某事否定形式: might not have done
例：She might have known what the bottle contained.
(4) should have done sth 估计已经做了某事
否定形式：should not have done
例：She should have arrived in her office by now.
(1) It takes / took / will take sb. some time / money to do sth.
例句：It took me years of hard work to speak good English.
(2) It is + adj +for/of sb to do sth
例：Lincoln said that it was not right for the South to break away from the
It was careless of Tom to break the cup.
(3) Sb. have / has / had no choice but to do... 某人除了做……别无选择.
例句：We had no choice but to take a taxi for we'd missed the last bus.
(4) It's not /just like sb. to do sth.……的行为不/正像某人的一贯作风.
例：lt's not like Jim to be late for class. He regards time as the most
important thing in life.
(5) ．．．．形容词／副词＋enough to do sth．
例：I was fortunate enough to travel to South Africa.．
(6) It pays to + V ~~~ （...是值得的。）
例句：It pays to help others. 帮助别人是值得的。
(7) It cost sb some time/money to do sth
例：It must cost a good deal to live here.住这儿一定会花很多钱的。
(8) do all he could to do sth
do what he could to do sth
do everything he could to do sth
例：They were doing everything they could to help the fatherland.
(9) It is hard to imagine/ say … 很难想象/说……
例：It is hard to imagine how Edison managed to work twenty hours each
It's hard to say whether the plan is practical.
(1) ...have trouble/difficulty/a hard time/a difficult time (in) doing sth.
例：People from the two countries do not have any difficulty in
understanding each other.
(2) upon/on doing sth, 一……就……
例：Upon / On hearing the unexpected news, he was so surprised that he
couldn't say a word.
(3) There is no/some difficulty/trouble (in) doing sth.
例：There is no difficulty in solving this social problem.
(4) There is no need/use harm/hurry in doing sth
例：There is no need in sending such expensive present.
(5) spend some time/money (in) doing sth
例：They say children spend too much time chatting and playing games instead of focusing on their school work.
(6) It's no use / good/ worth doing sth
例：It’s no use talking with him. He won’t listen to you.
(7) It's a waste of time/money/energy doing
例：It's a waste of time watching TV programme as this.
22、as if/though 句型：
例：He spoke to me as if I were deaf.
The new students talked as though they had been friends for years.
例：If the man had pointed with his first finger while he was in Brunei, everyone would have thought that he was very rude.
例：If I were in your position, I would call the police immediately.
例：If I had (should have) time tomorrow, I would certainly help you.
例：Should it rain, the crops would grow better.
Were I your father, I would not give you the money.
Had it not been for the captain, the ship would have sunk
24、Not --- until 句型
(1) 陈述句 not --- until --- 直到……才
例：Last night I didn't go to bed until 11 o'clock. 昨晚我11点钟才睡觉。
(2) 强调句 It wasn't until…that... 直到……才…….
例：It wasn't until yesterday that I got your letter.
(3) 倒装句 Not until...did... 直到……才…….
例：Not until I began to work did I realize how much time I had wasted.
(1) Since + S + 过去式，S + 现在完成式
例句：Since he went to senior high school, he has worked very hard.
(2) It is + --- + since S +持续性谓语动词（表否定）
例：It is three years since she lived here. 她已三年不住这儿了。
(3) It is + --- + since S + 瞬间谓语动词（表肯定）
例：It is years since I stopped smoking）．我戒烟已经数年了。
26、If only...! 真希望……!若是……那该多好啊!
例：If only I knew his name! 要是我知道他的名字就好了。
例：If only we had followed your advice! 我们要是采纳你的意见就好了。
例：If only I could see him again! 要是我能再看到他多好啊！
If only she would accept my invitation!
(1) Adj./n./adv. + as/ though+ Subject（主词）+ be, S + V~~~ （虽然...）
例句：Rich as our country is, the qualities of our living are by no means satisfactory.
(2) No matter what等特殊疑问词... …无论什么…….
例句：No matter what happens, I'll always stand by you.
(3) However + adj/adv + S + V, 尽管……
例：You won't be able to do it alone, however much you try.
(4) whatever/whoever/whenever/wherever + S + V，无论什么/哪里……
例：Wherever I am I will be thinking of you. 不管我在哪里我都会想到你。
(5) whether … or not
例：Whether you like it or not, you'll have to do it.
(6) even if/though
例：Even if/Even though the exercise is very difficult, you must do it.
(1) so/as/that/too/how +adj. + a/an + n.
例：He is as good a student as you. 他和你一样是个好学生。
This is too difficult a problem for me.对我来说这是一个太难的问题。
You can hardly imagine how clever a boy he is.
(2) quite/rather/what/such/many + a/an +(adj) +n
例：She sang quite a beautiful song. 她的歌唱得很漂亮。
He was such a fool as to believe what she said.
(3) all/both/half/twice the + n
例：All the students in her class like her very much.
(1) Nothing is + ~~~ er than to + V
Nothing is + more + 形容词 + than to + V
例：Nothing is more important than to receive education.
(2) no one (nobody, nothing)+so/as+原级＋as
例：Nobody is so blind as those who will not see.
(3) 比较级＋than+any other +名词单数
比较级＋than + any of the others
例：Bamboo probably has more uses than any other plant in the world.
(4) 否定词 +比较级
例：It can’t be worse. 这是最糟的
I can’t agree any more.我非常同意。
(5) be the last ----
例：This is the last thing I want to do. 这是我最不想干的事。
30、more --- than 句型：
(1) more --- than 与其……不如……
例：He is more lazy than slow at his work. = He is less slow than lazy at his work.
(2) more than 超过；不仅仅是；非常
例：These flags are more than just colorful pieces of cloth and thread sewn together.
(3) not more than 最多，不超过
例：They finished the project in not more than one year.
(4) no more than 仅仅
例：The officials could see no more than the Emperor.
例：I think it necessary to explore the space. 我认为探索太空是有必要的。
例：They found it strange that no one would take the money.
例：I had my pen stolen. 我的笔被偷了。
例：They found her lying in bed reading a novel.
例：In 1849, he went to England and made London the base for his revolutionary work.
I think him an honest man.我认为他是一个诚实的人。
例：I can't find him in the office.我在办公室外没有发现他。
(7) What do you find the hardest in... 你觉得……最大的困难是什么
例句：What do you find the hardest in learning English
(1) Suppose/ Supposing ---, 假如……
例：Suppose/Supposing he is absent, what shall we do?
(2) On condition that只要……；如果……
例：I'll come on condition that John is invited, too.
(3) provided (that)/ providing ----- 只要……
I will come provided (that) I am well enough. 只要我身体好，我一定来。
You may go out providing you do your homework first.
(4) so/as long as
例：As/So long as you work hard, you'll succeed in the end.
(5) 祈使句+and + 陈述句(表肯定）
例：Give him an inch and he’ll take a mile.
(= If you give him an inch, he’ll take a mile. ) 他会得寸进尺的。
(6) 祈使句+ or/otherwise +陈述句 (表否定）
例：Start at once, or / otherwise you’ll miss the train.
(= If you don’t start at once, …)
(= Unless you start at once, you’ll miss the train.)
(7) …won't...unless... 除非……否则我不会…….
例句：I won't write to him unless he writes to me first.
(1) A differs from B in that…(A不同于B在于……)
例：She differs from her sister in the colour of her eyes.
(2) ...varies from person to person(……是因人而异的)
例：The opinion of the problem varies from person to person.
(3) A is superior(inferior) to B. A 优越于B
例：The modal is technically superior to its competitors.
Some consider digital TV to be superior to satellite TV.
(4) be different from
例：Its meaning can be completely different from the meaning of its components.
(5) be inferior to
例：Modern music is often considered inferior to that of the past.
(6) A and B have sth in common. A 和B 有共同点。
例：The Japanese and Chinese cultures have a lot in common.
34、必须背诵的There be 句型：
(1) There is no immediate solution to the problem .
(2) There is no denying that + S + V ...（不可否认的...）
例：There is no denying that the qualities of our living have gone from bad
to worse. 不可否认的，我们的生活品质已经每况愈下。
(3) There is no doubt that... 毫无疑问,…….
例句：There is no doubt that health is better than wealth.
(4) There's no point in... ……是无意义的.
例句：There's no point in getting angry when things have happened.
(5) There's no way... ……绝不可能.
例句：There's no way one could succeed without hard work.
(6) There is no one but ~~~ （没有人不...）
例句：There is no one but longs to go to college.
(7)There is no need/use/harm/hurry in doing sth
例：There is no need in spending money mending the broken car.
There is no use in regretting when time passed by.
There is no harm in using the environmentally friendly products.
There is no hurry in running to school for time is still enough.
(8) There no/some difficulty/trouble (in) doing sth
例：There is no trouble in selling our car.
(1) the first time 引导的状语从句
例：I thought her nice and honest the first time I met her.
(2) (the) next time 引导的状语从句
例：The harvest will have been got in (the) next time you come.
(3) the last time 引导的状语从句
例：What was the name of the hotel he had stayed in the last time he was in Cairo?
(4) each time/every time 引导的状语从句
例：Every time you get back at night, you drop your shoes on the floor.
(5) It is ／was the first／last／second ／third time ＋从句（完成时态）
例：This is the first time I have been here 这是我第一次到这儿。
(6)It is high time that sb did (should do) sth 该……的时候了。
例句：It is high time that we went to the classroom.
(7) by the time + 从句 就在……时候；到……时候为止
例：We'll be ready by the time you get back.
(8) It's time for sb to do sth
例：It’s time for me to log off. 我该关机/下线了。
(9) It's time for sth
例：It's time for lunch. 午餐的时间到了。
(1) The point is that ... 重点/关键是…….
例句：The point is that you have to keep your promise to help her with her English.
(2) The chance is that … 有可能……
例：The chance is that he will succeed. 他很有可能成功。
(3) The fact is that … 事实是……
例：The fact is that he hasn’t yet recover from illness.
(4) The problem/question is that … 问题是……
例：The question is whether we should ask them for help.
(5)That is ---
例：That is where Lu Xun used to live. 这是鲁迅过去住过的地方。
(1) only 倒装句
例：Only with hard work can you expect to get a pay rise.
Only when he told me about the news did I know the truth.
(2) so 倒装句
例：So precious is time that we can’t afford to waste it.
(3) such 倒装句
例：Such was the story he told. 这就是他讲的故事。
Such a well-known man is he that everyone wants to take a photo with him.
例：On no account can we ignore the value of knowledge.
例：Outside the classroom stood an old man. 在教室的外面站着一位老人。
例：Seated on the ground are a group of young men playing cards.
Lying on the floor was a boy aged about seventeen.
(7) not only --- but also 倒装句
例：Not only was the city polluted but the streets were crowded.
Not only has aspirin saved many people’s lives by reducing fever and helping stop pain, but there are also other things that aspirin can help with.
(1) so that （引导结果状语从句）结果……
例：We were late so that the teacher was angry.
(2) so that = in order that （目的状语从句）以便，为了
例：I hurried so that I wouldn't be late for class．
In order that he should not be late, his mother woke him at 6.
(3) so +形容词+（或a/an+ 名词）+that 如此……以致于……
例：I've been working so hard recently that I haven't had any time for collecting new stamps. 我近来一直很忙，没时间搜集新邮票。
(4) such +名词（或an/a+形容词 + 名词）+--- that
例：It is such an unusual work of art that everyone wants to have a look at it
(1) too 用于肯定
例：I like the book, too. 我也喜欢这本书。
(2) also 用于陈述句
例：She also speaks a little Italian. 她也会说一点意大利语。
(3) either 用于否定句
例：Peter can't go and I can't either. Peter 不能去，我也不能。
(4) so 用于肯定的倒装句
例：You speak English well, so does he.
(5) neither/nor 用于否定的倒装句
例：I have never heard of such a thing, Neither has she.
Tom didn’t finish his homework. Nor did Jane.
(6) as well 用于句末
例：He knows German as well. 他也懂德语。
(7) so it is/was with = so it is/was the same with 用于包含不同种类的动词
例：Jack is a student and studies in China. So it is with Green.
(8) The same is true of……，
例：The music is dull and uninspiring, and the same is true of the acting.
(9) The same can be said of…… (……也是如此).
例：The same can be said of our country, also a developing one.
(1) 由where 引导
例：The suggestion where we should build our new factory should be considered.
例：I have no idea what he did. 我不知道他做了什么。
(3) 由whether 引导
例：The question whether he’ll attend the meeting is not decided.
例：The question who will go abroad needs considering.
(5) 由when 引导
例：I have no idea when they will be back and settle down.
(6) 由that 引导
例：The suggestion that the students should have plenty of exercise is very
(7) 由how 引导
例：He can’t answer the question how he got the money.
(8) 由why 引导
例: We don’t understand the problem why this is the best choice.
(1) It doesn't matter whether 是否……并没有关系
例：It doesn’t matter whether it is fine or not.
(2) It makes no difference whether 是否……没关系
例：It makes no difference whether you go today or tomorrow.
(3) It is not made clear whether 是否……还不清楚
例：It is not made clear whether Lily will pass the exam.
(4) It is still a question whether 是否……仍然是一个问题
例：It is still a question whether they are able to get enough coal this winter.
(5) It is not decided whether 是否……还没决定
例：It is not decided whether the sports meeting will be put off.
(6} It is to be found out whether 是否……有待于发现
例：It is to be found out whether there is other oil resources underground.
(7) It is to be decided whether 是否……有待于决定
例：It is to be decided whether this idea can be put into practice.
(8) I doubt/wonder whether 我怀疑是否……
例：I doubt whether the new one will be any better.
(9) have no idea/don't know whether 不知道是否……
例：I have no idea whether the traffic is terrible on that way.
(10) It depends on whether... 这取决于……是否…….
例句：It depends on whether you are determined to do it or not.
(1) with + n + adj.
例：He stared at me with his mouth open. 他张着嘴凝视着我。
(2) with + n + adv
例：The boy stood there, with his head down. 这男孩低着头站在那。
(3) with + n + 介词短语
例：He stood with his hand in his pocket. 他站着，一手插在衣袋里。
(4) with + n + 动词不定式
例：With no one to talk to, John felt miserable.
(5) with + n + 现在分词
例：With prices going up so fast, we can't afford luxuries.
(6) with + n + 过去分词
例：With her eyes fixed on the opposite wall, she did not answer immediately.
(1) have sb do sth
例：I won't have you say such things. 我绝不会让你说这样的话。
(2) have sb doing
例：She will have you doing all the housework if you are're not carefully.
(3) have sth done
例：I have my hair cut every six weeks. 我每六个星期剪一次头。
(1) in case
例：He left early in case he should miss the last train.
(2) for fear (that)
例：He handled the instrument with care for fear (that) it should be damaged.
(3) so that
例：Let’s take the front seats so that we can see more clearly.
(4) in order that
例：He got up very early so that/in order that he might/could catch the early bus.
(1) You may take whatever(=anything/everything that)you like.
(2) You may take whichever(=any) seat you like.
(3) Whoever(=Anyone who) cuts the trees down must be punished.
(4) You may give the note to whomever(=anyone whom) you meet at the office.
例：My aunt has worked in a clinic since 1949.
(2) since when +完成时
例：Since when have you planted so many young trees?
(3) This/it is the first (third...) time sb have done sth
例：This is the first time I have been here.这是我第一次到这儿。
例：She will have finished the book by my next birthday.
By eleven o'clock yesterday, we had arrived at the airport.
但比较：By the time the speaker entered the hall, all the listeners were seated.
(5) in the past time( two days/years...) +完成时
例：In the past 10 years, there have been great changes in our family life.
(6) hardly ... when.... (no sooner ... than)句型用过去完成时
例：Hardly had I reached the school when the bell rang.
No sooner had we sat down at the table than the phone rang.
例：I had thought I could pass the final examination but I failed.
(1) everywhere 引导
例：Everywhere they went, they were kindly received / warmly welcomed.
(2) anywhere 引导
例：We’ll go anywhere the Party directs us.党指向哪我们就去哪。
(3) the way 引导
例：She is doing her work the way I like it done.
(4) like 引导
例：The landlord was watching him like (= just as) a cat watches a mouse.
例：I didn’t wait a moment, but came immediately you called.
(1) owe it to sb. that…把…归功于…
例：I owe it to you that I finished my work in time.
(2) take it for granted that …想当然
例：I take it for granted that they will support this idea.
(3) keep it in mind that…
例：It must be kept in mind that there is no secret of success but hard work.
(4) It can be seen from the statistics that ...从这个统计可看出……
例句：It can be seen from the statistics that exercise is good for us.
(5). It用在不能直接跟宾语从句的动词后面，尤其是表示好恶的动词后， enjoy, like, love, dislike, resent, hate, don't mind, be fond of, feel like, see to, appreciate, stand 宾语从句紧跟it之后
例 I hate it you can swim so well and I can't.
I would appreciate it if you call me back this evening.
I can't stand it when people talk with their mouth full.
(6). It用在不能直接跟宾语从句的介词后面，宾语从句紧跟it之后（except that例外）
例：I'm for it that you will follow their advice.
(7) It must be pointed out that 必须指出的是
例句：It must be pointed out that it is one of our basic State policies to control population growth while raising the quality of the population.
(8) It has been proved that… 有人已经证实……
例：It has been proved that his theory is right.
(1) on the one hand --- ; on the other hand
(2) For one thing ---; for another thing ---
例：For one thing, these shoes don't suit you. For another, they are too expensive.
(3) It is one thing to...; it is another to...
(4) what's more ---; morever ---; furthermore ---
(5) Firstly ---; secondly ---; finally ---
(6) In the first place ---; in the second place ---
(7)First of all/to begin with ---; in addition/besides ---
(1) Through the above analysis(分析)
例：Through the above analysis, I believe that the positive aspects outweigh the negative ones.
(2) To sum up,总而言之, …
例：To sum up, there are three ways of solving the problems.
(3) In short... 总之……
例：In short, the students have not arrived at any agreement yet.
(4) In a word , it is clear that… 总之，很明显……
例：In a word, it is clear that smoking does harm to our health.
(5) On account of this we can find that … 由此我们可以知道…
例：On account of this we can find that it is not suitable for middle school students to have cell phones.
(6) In conclusion … 结论之, …
例：In conclusion, we must take into account this problem rationally and place more emphases on peasants’ lives.
(7) All in all, it is obvious that …..总之，很明显……
例：All in all, it is obvious that the government should set up different kinds of schools to meet the demands of different children.
(8) From what has been discussed above/taking into account all these factors, we may safely arrive at/draw/come to/reach the conclusion that ...
例：From what has been discussed above/taking into account all these factors, we may safely arrive at/draw/come to/reach the conclusion that the leisure life-style is undergoing a decline with the progress of modern society, it is not necessary a bad thing.
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