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  状语从句常见考点透析与解读         ★★★ 【字体:
状语从句常见考点透析与解读
作者:...    文章来源:...    点击数:2787    更新时间:2009-02-05    

状语从句常见考点透析与解读

状语从句是每年高考单项填空部分必考的题目之一。考查的重点是考生容易混淆较近似的连词在逻辑行文和语篇结构中的使用。纵观近几年各省市高考题,从中可以看出命题者把着眼点放在了对条件状语、让步状语、时间状语和地点状语从句的考查,时而涉及目的状语从句、结果状语从句和原因状语从句。

下面选取近几年各省市的高考试题归纳分析,使考生通过典型实例,把握高考对状语从句的命题规律,帮助同学们更好地解答此类题目。

一、基本状语从句的考查

常见的状语从句有:时间状语从句、条件状语从句、让步状语从句、结果状语从句、目的状语从句、原因状语从句、比较状语从句和方式状语从句,共八种。考查最多的是时间状语从句、条件状语从句、让步状语从句、地点状语从句。

(一)条件状语从句

引导条件状语从句的从属连词有if ,unless (=if not如果不……,除非)as/so long as, when (=considering that既然,考虑到)while=as long as只要),supposing that, provided that, in case(假使),on condition that (在……的条件下)等等。

【典型考例】

1I wont call you, ________ something unexpected happens. 2007全国卷1

   A. unless       B. whether         C. because         D. while

解析:句意是“除非有想不到的事情发生,否则我不会给你打电话”。故选答案A

2______ he had not hurt his leg, John would have won the race. 2007全国卷2

    解析;句意是“要是John没有伤到腿,他就在比赛中获胜了”。故选答案A

A. If             B. Since          C. Though         D. When

3You will be successful in the interview           you have confidence. 2007福建卷)

A. before            B. once              C. until             D. though

解析:句意是“一旦你有了信心,在面试时你就会成功”。故选答案B 

4How can you expect to learn anything ____ you never listen? 2006山东卷

A. in case      B. even if        C. unless             D. when

解析:in case万一,以防;even if即使;unless除非,如果不……;when既然,考虑到。句意是“既然你从不听,那么你怎么能期望学到东西呢 ”。故选答案D

(二)时间状语从句

引导时间状语从句的有:

从属连词:whenaswhilebeforeaftersincetill/untilas soon asonce,……等。

名词短语:next time, every time, the moment, the minute等等。

考查重点:1、在语境中考查从属连词基本词义

【典型考例】

5)—Wheres that report? 2007北京卷)

  I brought it to you ____you were in Mr. Blacks office yesterday.

A. if             B. when           C. because            D. before

解析:句意是“当你昨天在Mr. Black办公室的时候我就把那报告给你了”。所给选项只有B项符合题意,故选B项。

2before的用法:

before引导时间状语从句含义颇多,既可以表示“还未来得及…就…”,也可以表示“在……之后……才;“在……之前就……”等含义。

【典型考例】

6)—Why didn't you tell him about the meeting? ( 2006四川卷)

He rushed out of the room _________ I could say a word.

  A. before           B. until            C. when       D. after

解析:考例(6)句意是“你为什么没告诉他有关会议的事?我还没来得及说一句话他就冲出去了。”只有before符合句意,故正确答案为A项。

3until的用法:

until用于肯定句意思是“到……时候,在……之前”。指某一动作或状态一直延续到until所表示的时间为止。主句谓语动词多为延续性动词或表示状态的动词。until用于否定句意思是“直到……才……。”表示直到此时才开始某个动作,谓语动词多为非延续性动词。

7It is difficult for us to learn a lesson in life ________ weve actually had that lesson. 2007天津卷)

A. until          B. after              C. since              D. when

解析:句意是“在亲身经历之前,我们很难去体味生活中的教训。”所给选项只有until符合句意,故正确答案为选项A

notuntil…的句型结构中要对until部分进行强调时,要将not提前,与until一起置于被强调的部分。尽管强调的时间,但不可以用when

8It _____ we had stayed together for a couple of weeks ____ I found we had a lot in common. 2007浙江卷)

  A. was until; when   B. was until; that    C. wasnt until; when     D. wasnt until; that

解析:该题考查的是对“notuntil…”句型构成强调句型。故正确答案为选项D

4、几种特殊句型结构的区别:

1It is/was + 时刻 + when从句“某事发生时是什么时候。”

2It is/has been + 时间段 + since从句“自从……以来有多长时间了。”

3It will/would be + 时间段 + before 从句“还要过多长时间……才……”

4It will/would not be + 时间段 + before 从句“过不了多长时间……就会……”

5It was + 时间段 + before从句“过了多长时间才……”

6It was not + 时间段 + before从句“没过多长时间就……”

【典型考例】

9The field research will take Joan and Paul about five months; it will be a long time _____ we meet them again.2007安徽卷)

     A. after               B. before             C. since               D. when

10)— Did Jack come back early last night? 2005福建)

Yes. It was not yet eight o clock________ he arrived home.

A. before            B. when           C. that         D. until

11It is almost five years           we saw each other last time. 2005北京春)

A. before                 B. since           C. after            D. when

12It was some time ___________we realized the truth. 2005山东)

   A. when                   B. until            C. since     D. before

解析:考例(9)句意是“这项调查研究将要花JoanPaul大约5个月的时间。要们还要一段时间才能再次见到他们。”所以该题考查的是句型:It will/would be + 时间段 + before 从句“还要过多长时间……才……”。考例(10)句意是“Jack昨晚回来早吗?是的,他到家时还不到8点”。考查的是句型:It is/was + 时刻 + when从句。考例(11)考查的是句型:It is/has been + 时间段 + since从句;考例(12)考查的是句型:It was + 时间段 + before从句。故正确答案为BBBD

(三)让步状语从句

引导让步状语从句的连词有:though/although(尽管),even if/even though(即使),no matter how(whatwhenwhichwhowhere)however(whateverwheneverwhicheverwhoeverwherever)(无论……),as(尽管),while(虽然,尽管),in case(万一)等。

【典型考例】

13Many of them turned a deaf ear to his advice, _______ they knew it to be valuable. 2007浙江卷)

   A. as if        B. now that       C. even though      D. so that

    解析:as if 好像,引导方式状语从句;now that既然,引导原因状语从句;so that以便,引导目的或结果状语从句。句意是“即使很多人知道他的建议颇有价值,但他们仍对其建议置若罔闻”。故正确答案为选项C

14________ I really dont like art, I find his work impressive. (2007山东卷)

A. As     B. Since          C. If            D. While

解析:as因为,引导原因状语从句,since既然,引导原因状语从句;if如果,引导条件状语从句;while当……时候,引导时间状语从句,也可以表示“虽然,尽管”,引导让步状语从句。句意是“尽管我不喜欢艺术,但我还是发现他的作品很感人。”故正确答案为选项D

15 ________  tomorrow, our ship will set sail for Macao. 2007上海春招)

A .However the weather is like                   B. However is the weather like

C. Whatever is the weather like                     D. Whatever the weather is like

解析:句意是“无论明天天气怎样,我们的船都将起航去澳门”。however后常紧跟形容词或副词,whatever“无论什么”,修饰名词,或直接在从句中作主语、宾语或表语。故正确答案为选项D

16__________he has limited technical knowledge, the old worker has a lot of experience. ( 2006全国)

A. Since        B. Unless          C. As           D. Although

解析:句意是“尽管这位老工人科技知识有限,但他却经验丰富”。所给选项只有although可引导让步状语从句。故正确答案为选项D

注意:(1)althoughthough可互换,都可以与yetstillnevertheless连用,但不能和but连用。(2)however引导让步状语从句时后紧跟形容词或副词。(3while也可引导让步状语从句,这一点很容易被考生忽视。

(四)结果状语从句

结果状语从句的连词有:so thatsothat…,suchthat.结果状语放在主句之后。常见句型结构有:

(1) so + 形容词/副词+ that从句;

(2) such a/an + 形容词+可数名词单数+that从句;

(3) so + 形容词+ a/an + 可数名词单数+that从句;

4such + 形容词+ 可数名词复数/不可数名词+that从句

【典型考例】

17Pop music is such an important part of society ______ it has even influenced our language. 2007上海卷)

A. as         B. that        C. which       D. where

解析:句意是“流行音乐是社会的一个重要组成部分以至影响到了我们的语言”。考查的是句型:such a/an + 形容词+可数名词单数+that从句。故正确答案为B

注意:在sothatsuchthat结构中一般成分齐全。这也是与as引导定语从句的区别。在soassuchas这一结构中,as引导定语从句,在句中做成分。

(五)目的状语从句

目的状语从句连词有:in case“以免,以防万一” ,in order that“为了……,以便……”。so that引导状语从句只能置于主句之后。in order that引导状语从句可放主句之前或之后。目的状语从句的谓语常含有cancouldmaymightwould等情态动词。这也是与结果状语从句的一个区别。

【典型考例】

18 Leave your key with a neighbor _____ you lock yourself out one day2007北京卷)

A. ever since      B. even if       C. soon after      D. in case

解析:ever since 从那时到现在,引导时间状语从句;even if即使,引导让步状语从句;soon after不久之后,引导时间状语从句;in case 以防,以免,引导目的状语从句。题意是“留一把钥匙在邻居那儿,以防有一天你被关在门外”。故正确答案为D项。

19Id like to arrive 20 minutes early _________ I can have time for a cup of tea. 2005北京)

    A. as soon as       B. as a result      C. in case     D. so that

解析:as soon as一……就……,引导时间状语从句;as a result结果,常用作插入语;in case以免,以防万一,引导目的状语从句;so that以便,引导目的状语从句。题意是“我喜欢提前20分钟到,以便我有时间喝一杯茶”。故正确答案为选项D

(六)地点状语从句

地点状语从句由whereanywhere, wherever引导。where指“在某个地方”,wherever指“无论哪里,在任何一个地方”。

【典型考例】

20In peacetoothe Red Cross is expected to send help________ there is human suffering. 2006江西卷

    A. whoever      B. however      C. whatever       D. wherever

解析:题意是“……红十字会也被期望把帮助送到人类受难的地方”,故正确答案为D.

21If you are traveling        the customs are really foreign to your own, please do as the Romans do. ( 2006天津卷)

A. in which      B. what         C. when          D. where

解析:题意是“如果你到一个不适合自己的风俗的地方,那么就要入乡随俗”。A项容易错认为是定语从句,它前面缺先行词,故不成立,正确答案为选项D

注意:使用时,一要注意两者的含义区别;二要注意状语从句和定语从句的区别;三要注意在状语从句中不可使用介词+which引导。四要注意what在名词从句中表“地点”。出题者既考状语从句又考定语从句和状语从句的区别。还加入名词性从句这一干扰项。

(七)原因状语从句

引导原因状语从句的连词有:becauseassincewhen(既然),now that(既然),seeing that(因为), considering that等。

注意:for表示的原因并不说明主句行为发生的直接原因,只是提供一些有利于说明情况的补充说明。且不可位于主句前。

【典型考例】

22Jenny was very sad over the loss of the photos she had shot at Canada,          this was a memory she especially treasured. 2006广东卷

  A. as            B. if              C. when          D. where

解析:题意是“Jenny丢失了她在加拿大拍得照片非常难过,因为那是她特别珍惜的一段回忆。”所给选项只有A项符合题意,故正确答案为A项。

(23)  How can you expect to learn anything ________ you never listen? 2006山东卷

A. in case           B. even if        C. unless          D. when

解析:in case万一;even if即使;unless除非,如果不;when既然。题意是“既然你从未听,你怎想学到东西呢”。故正确答案为选项D

二、状语从句中的省略

1、在时间、条件、让步、原因等状语从句中,当从句主语和主句主语一致,或从句主语是it,且含有be动词时,可以将从句主语和be动词省略。

【典型考例】

(24) We all know that, __________, the situation will get worse. 2007全国卷1

   A. not if dealt carefully with         B. if not carefully dealt with

   C. if dealt not carefully with         D. not if carefully dealt with

   解析:该题宾语从句中又含有一if引导的条件状语从句,条件状语从句中的主语和后面的句子主语一致,且含有be动词is,所以可以省略从句的主语和be动词,正确答案为选项B

2、在if引导的非真实条件状语从句中,如果从句含有助动词had, shouldwere时,可以省略连词if,而将这些助动词置于主语前。

25__________ fired, your health care and other benefits will not be immediately cut off.      2006湖北卷

    A. Would you be     B. Should you be   C. Could you be      D. Might you be

三、状语从句中时态的考查

当主句是一般将来时,时间、条件等状语从句中常用一般现在时表示将来。

【典型考例】

 (26) What would you do if it         tomorrow ? 2005全国卷Ⅰ)

    We have to carry it on , since weve got everything ready.

    A. rain         B. rains        C. will rain    D. is raining

    解析:if引导的条件状语从句常用一般现在时表示将来,故正确答案为选项B

注意:当连词引导的不是状语从句,而是宾语从句时,从句谓语动词根据主语时态可以用一般将来时或其他时态。

【典型考例】

(27) I think it is necessary for my 19-year-old son to have his own mobile phone, for I sometimes want to make sure if he           home for dinner. ( 2006辽宁卷)

A. come           B. comes          C. has come       D. will come

解析:if引导的是宾语从句,而非条件状语从句,从主句时态可判断宾语从句要用一般将来时。故正确答案为选项D

四、状语从句中的倒装

1no sooner than(刚……就……),hardlywhen…(刚……就……)引导时间状语从句,no sooner, hardly位于句首时,主句要用部分倒装语序,且主句常用过去完成时。

【典型考例】

28Did Linda see the traffic accident? ( 2006天津卷)

No, no sooner        than it happened.

A. had she gone   B. she had gone   C. has she gone    D. she has gone

解析:题意是“Linda目睹了那场交通事故吗?不,她刚离开就发生了。”no sooner置于句首时,要用倒装语序,且时态常用过去完成时,故正确答案为选项A

2asthough引导让步状语从句,常将作表语的形容词、名词或动词置于句首。即使是单数名词作表语,置于句首时,前面也不需要不定冠词修饰。

【典型考例】

29_________,his idea was accepted by all the people at the meeting. 2007重庆卷)

A. Strange as might it sound           B. As it might sound strange

C. As strange it might sound           D. Strange as it might sound

解析:as引导的让步状语从句,常将作表语的形容词置于句首,故正确答案为选项D

3sothat…,suchthat…引导的结果状语从句中,如果将so+形容词,such+名词置于句首时,前部分用部分倒装语序。

【典型考例】

30         that Maric was able to set up new branches elsewhere. 2007陕西卷)    A. So successful her business was     B. So successful was her business

C. So her business was successful      D. So was her successful business

解析:题意是“Maric的事业如此成功以至于她又在其他地方开办分支结构。”“so+形容词”置于句首时,主句部分要用部分倒装语序,故正确答案为选项B

五、状语从句中的虚拟语气

1if引导的非真实条件句中,如果表达与过去事实相反的情况,则要用虚拟语气。从句谓语动词结构为:would have done, if从句谓语动词则用过去完成时。

【典型考例】

(31) What would have happened__________, as far as the river bank? (2001上海)

  A. Bob had walked farther               B. if Bob should walk farther  

  C. had Bob walked farther               D. if Bob walked farther

解析:从主句谓语动词结构可以看出该题是一个与过去事实相反的虚拟语气。从句谓语动词应用过去完成时。省略连词if后要将助动词had置于主语前。故正确答案为选项C

2、在as if引导的方式状语从句中,如果表达的是真实情况,则用陈述语气;如表达的是一种假设或无法实现的某种情况,则用虚拟语气。

(32) Eliza remembers everything exactly as if ______ yesterday. 2006北京)

    A. was happening       B. happens    C. has happened        D. happened

解析:题意是“Eliza很清楚地记得每一件事,就像昨天发生的一样。”句子表达的是与现在情况相反的情况,故从句要用一般过去时。故正确答案为选项D

 

 

【巩固练习】

1. __________ about wild plants that they decided to make a trip to Madagascar for further research.

   A. so curious the couple was          B. So curious were the couple

  C. So curious the couple were          D. The couple was such curious

2. The flowers his friend gave him will die unless ________ every day.

     A. watered       B.  watering   B. water      D.  to water

3. When_______ help, one often says Thank you. or It s kind of you.

 A. offering         B. to offer       C. to be offered         D. offered

4. My parents live in a small village. They always keep candles in the house ____there is a power cut.

A. if      B. unless     C. in case    D. so that

5. His plan was such a good one _________we all agreed to accept it.

A. so             B. and         C. that           D. as

6. Most birds find it safe to sleep in the trees, but ________ they have eggs or young chicks, they dont use a nest.

   A. why            B. how            C. unless          D. where

7. Small sailboats can easily turn over in the water ______ they are not managed carefully.

   A. though      B. before      C. until       D. if

8.   ____ there is a snowstorm or some other bad weather, the mail always comes on time.

A. Because           B. If               C. When             D. Unless

9. _______ environmental damage is done, it takes many years for the ecosystem (生态系统) to recover.

   A. Even if      B. If only      C. While        D. Once

10 How long do you think it will be ______China sends a manned spaceship to the moon?

Perhaps two or three years.

A. when               B. until          C. that         D. before

11. In time of serious accidents________   we know some basic things about first aid, we can save lives.

 A. whether   B. until      C. if          D. unless
12
. ________ you have tried it, you cant imagine how pleasant it is.

   A. Unless      B. Because        C. Although      D. When

13. "You can't have this football back             you promise not to kick it at my cat again," the old man said firmly.

     A. because             B. since               C. when          D. until

14. This is a very interesting book. Ill buy it, __________.

A. how much may it cost           B. no matter how it may cost

C. however much it may cost        D. how may it cost

15. We dont keep winning games _______ we keep playing well.

  A. because       B. unless        C. when          D. while

16. Mom, what did the doctor say?

  He advised mo to live______ the air is fresher.

A. in where     B. in which     C. the place where       D. where

17. Why didn't you tell him about the meeting?

  He rushed out of the room _________ I could say a word.

  A. before           B. until            C. when       D. after

18. A warm thought suddenly came to me        I might use the pocket money to buy some flowers for my mothers birthday

A. if               B. when        C. that             D. which

19. _________ most of the earths surface is covered by water, fresh water is very rare and precious.

A. As            B. Once     C. If           D. Although

20. I always take something to read when I go to the doctor s __________ I have to wait.

A. In case              B. so that           C. in order       D. as if

21. You can eat food free in my restaurant __________you like.

A. whenever       B. wherever      C. whatever        D. however

22.  __________ I accept that he is not perfect, I do actually like the person.

A. While           B. Since         C. Before           D. Unless

23. The house could fall down soon if no one______ some quick repair work.

A. has done        B. is doing        C. does            D. had done

24. _____ modeling business is by no means easy to get into, the good model will always be in demand.

A. While           B. Since           C. As              D. If

25. Scientists say it may be five or six years_________ it is possible to test this medicine on human patients.

A. since          B. after          C. before         D. when

Keys:

15BADCC 610 CDDDD 1115 CADCB 1620ABD  2125 AACAC

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