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  高中英语语法大全-词法部分 [下]         ★★★ 【字体:
高中英语语法大全-词法部分 [下]
作者:未知    文章来源:未知    点击数:2487    更新时间:2008-10-22    

高中英语语法大全-词法部分 []

11 代词

.概念:

代词是代替名词的词, 按其意义,特征及其在句中的作用分为:人称代词,物主代词,指示代词,反身代词,相互代词,疑问代词,不定代词和关系代词等.

.相关知识点精讲

1.人称代词

1)人称代词的人称,数和格,如下表所示.

2)人称代词有主格和宾格之分.通常主格作主语,宾格作宾语.:

I like table tennis. (作主语)

Do you know him (作宾语)

3)人称代词还可作表语.作表语时用宾格.:

---Whos is knocking at the door

---It's me.

4)人称代词在than之后与其他人或事物进行比较时,用主格和宾格都可以.:

He is older than me.

He is older than I am.

2. 物主代词

1)表示所有关系的代词叫物主代词.物主代词分形容词性物主代词和名词性

物主代词,如下表所示.

2)形容词性物主代词的作用相当于形容词,可在句中作定语.例如:

Our teacher is coming to see us.

This is her pencil-box.

3)名词性物主代词的作用相当于名词,在句中可用作主语,宾语和表语.

Our school is here, and theirs is there.(作主语)

--- Is this English-book yours (作表语)

--- No. Mine is in my bag.

I've already finished my homework. Have you finished yours (作宾语)

3. 指示代词

指示代词包括:this,that,these,those.

1) thisthese一般用来指在时间或空间上较近的事物或人,thatthose

则指时间和空间上较远的事物或人,例如:

This is a pen and that is a pencil.

We are busy these days.

In those days the workers had a hard time.

2)有时thatthose指前面讲到过的事物,this these则是指下面将要讲

到的事物,例如:

I had a cold. That's why I didn't come.

What I want to say is this ; pronunciation is very important in learning English.

3)有时为了避免重复提到的名词,常可用thatthose代替,例如:

Television sets made in Beijing are just as good as those made in Shanghai.

4)this 在电话用语中代表自己,that 则代表对方.例如:

Hello! This is Mary. Is that Jack speaking

4. 反身代词

英语中用来表示"我自己","你自己","他自己","我们自己","你们自己"

等意义的代词称为反身代词,也有人称之为自身代名词,其形式如表所示.

反身代词可以在句中作宾语,表语,同位语.

1)作宾语,表示动作的承受者就是动作的发出者,主语和宾语指同一个人

或一些人.

He called himself a writer.

Would you please express yourself in English

2)作表语.

It doesn't matter.I'll be myself soon.

The girl in the news is myself.

3)作主语或宾语的同位语,表示亲自或本人.

I myself washed the clothes.(=I washed the clothes myself.)(作主语同位语)

You should ask the teacher himself.(作宾语同位语)

5. 不定代词

不是指明代替任何特定名词的代词叫做不定代词,在句中可作主语,

,宾语和定语.现将几个常用的不定代词举例说明如下:

1)someany的区别

some多用于肯定句,表示"一些,几个"作形容词时,后面可以接①不可数名词+单数动词;②可数名词+复数动词.

Look! Some of the students are cleaning the library.

. Some rice in the bag has been sold out.

any多用于疑问句,条件句和否定句中,表示"一些,任何"用作形容词时,后面可以接①不可数名词+单数动词;②可数名词+复数动词.

If you have any questions, please ask me.

There isn't any orange in the bottle.

Have you got any tea

anysome也可以作代词用,表示"一些".any多用于疑问句或否定句中,some多用于肯定句中.

How many people can you see in the picture

I can't see any.

If you have no money, I'll lend you some.

注意:some, any结合的词如something, somebody, someone, anything, anyone, anybody在肯定句,否定句,疑问句,条件句中的用法,大致和some, any的用法相同.

2) few, a few, little, a little在用法上的区别

①用作形容词:

含义

用法

表示肯定

表示否定

用于可数名词

a few虽少,但有几个

few不多,几乎没有

用于不可数名词

a little,虽少,但有一点

little不多,没有什么

I'm going to buy a few apples.

He can speak only a little Chinese.

There is only a little milk in the glass.

He has few friends.

They had little money with them.

a littlelittle也可以用作副词,a little表示"有点,稍微",little表示"很少".

I'm a little hungry. (修饰形容词hungry)

Let him sleep a little. (修饰动词sleep)

Mary, go a little faster, please. (修饰副词比较级)

She slept very little last night.

3)other, the other, another, others, the others的区别.

代名词

形容词

单数

复数

单数

复数

不定

another

另一个

others

别人,其他人

another (boy)

另一个(男孩)

other (boys)

其他男孩

特定

the other

另一个

the others

其余那些人,

the other (boy)

另一个男孩

the other (boys)

其余那些男孩

other可以作形容词用,后面可以跟单数或复数名词,意思是"其他的,

".

Where are his other books

I haven't any other books except this one.

other也可以用作代词,与冠词the连用构成"the other",表示两个人或物中的"另一个".常与one搭配构成"one ..., the other ..."句型.

He has two brothers. One is 10 years old , the other is 5 years old.

She held a ruler in one hand and an exercise-book in the other.

other作代词用时,可以有复数"others",泛指"另外的人或物".常与some搭配构成"some ...., others ..."句型.

Some went to the cinema, others went swimming.

This coat is too large. Show me some others, please.

"the others"表示特指某范围内的"其他的人或物".

We got home by 4 o'clock, but the others didn't get back until 8 o'clock.

In our class only Tom is English, the others are Chinese.

another可以作形容词用,修饰后面的名词,意为"另一个",还可以跟代词one.

You can see another ship in the sea, can't you

Mary doesn't want to buy this skirt. Would you please show her another one

another也可以作代词用,表示"另一个".

I'm still hungry after I've had this cake. Please give me another.

4)everyeach的区别.

each

every

1)可单独使用

1)不可单独使用

2)可做代名词,形容词

2)仅作形容词

3)着重"个别"

3)着重"全体",毫无例外

4)用于两者或两者以上中的每一个人或物

4)用于三者或三者以上每一个人或物

The teacher gave a toy to each child.

Each ball has a different colour.

当我们说each child, each studenteach teacher,我们想到的是一个人的情况.而当我们说every childevery student,我们想到的是全体的情况,every的意思与all接近,表示他们都如此.

Every student loves the English teacher. = All students love the English teacher.

Every child likes playing. = All children like playing.

5)allboth的用法.

all指三者以上,或不可数的东西.谓语动词既可以用单数,也可以用作复数.在句中作主语,表语,宾语,同位语和定语.

All of us like Mr Pope. 我们都喜欢Pope先生.(作主语)

= We all like Mr Pope. (作同位语)

All the water has been used up. (作主语)

That's all for today. (作表语)

Why not eat all (of) the fish (作宾语)

All the leaders are here. (作定语)

both作代词.

a.与其他名词或代词并列出现,表示"两个都".

Lucy and Lily both agree with us.

They both passed on their sticks at the same time.

How are your parents They're both fine.

b."of +代词(或名词)"连用,表示"两者都".

Both of them came to see Mary.

Both of the books are very interesting.

c.单独使用,表示"两者()".

Michael has two sons. Both are clever.

I don't know which book is the better, I shall read both.

both用作形容词,放在名词之前,修饰该名词,表示"两者都".

Both his younger sisters are our classmates.

. There are tall trees on both sides of the street.

6. 相互代词

表示相互关系的代词叫做相互代词.相互代词有each other one another两种形 .在当代英语中,each otherone another没有什么区别.相互代词可在句中作宾语,定语.作定语用时,相互代词用所有格形式.

We should learn from each other / one another. (作宾语)

Do you often write to each other / one another (作宾语)

We often borrow each other's / one another's books. (作定语)

The students corrected each other's / one another's mistakes in their homework.

(作定语)

7. 疑问代词

疑问代词有who,whom,whose,whatwhich.疑问代词用于特殊疑

问句中,一般都放在句首,并在句子中作为某一句子成分.例如:

Who is going to come here tomorrow (作主语)

What is that (作表语)

Whose umbrella is this (作定语)

Whom are you waiting for (作宾语)

8.关系代词

关系代词是一种引导从句并起连接主句和从句作用的代词.关系代词有 who, whose, whom, that, which. 它们在句中可用作主语,表语,宾语,定语. 在主句中,它们还代表着从句所修饰的那个名词或代词.例如:

I hate people who talk much but do little.

I'm looking at the photograph which you sent me with your letter.

With the money that he had saved, he went on with his studies.

Do you know the lady who is interviewing our headmaster

.巩固练习

1. Tom, Please pass ________ the glasses. I want to read the newspapers.

A. you B. me C. him D. her

2. The English novel is quite easy for you. There are ______ new words in it.

A. a little B. little C. a few D. few

3. ---You want ________ sandwich

---Yes, I usually eat a lot when I'm hungry.

A. other B. another C. others D. the other

4. The doctors and nurses are doing their best to fight SARS. They think more of others than _______.

A. they B. them C. themselves D. theirs

5. ---Which do you prefer, a bottle of orange or a bottle of milk

---______________, thanks. I'd like a cup of tea.

A. Either B. Neither C. Both D. None

6. ---Oh! I came in a hurry and forgot to bring food.

---Never mind. You can have ________.

A. us B. ours C. you D. yours

7. ---Can I come this evening or tomorrow morning

---_______ is OK. I'm free today and tomorrow.

A. Either B. Neither C. Both D. None

8. ---How are you going to improve _______ this term

---Work harder than last term.

A. ourselves B. myself C. himself D. yourself

9. ---Could you tell me _______ she is looking for

---Her cousin, Susan.

A. that B. whose C. who D. which

10. ---Is _______ here

---No. Li Lei and Han Mei have asked for leave.

A. everybody B. somebody C. anybody D. nobody

11. Paul has _______ friends except me, and sometimes he feels lonely.

A. many B. some C. few D. more

12. If you want to book a round-trip ticket, you'll have to pay ______ $ 30.

A. more B. other C. the other D. another

13. ---Do you live by yourself, Mr Wang

---Yes. I have two sons. But ______ of them lives with me. They are now studying in America

A. neither B. both C. none D. either

14. ---Have you sent your parents an E-mail telling them you arrived safe

---No. _______ of them can use a computer.

A. None B. Both C. Neither D. All

15. Who taught _______ English last term Was _____ Mr. Smith

A. you; it B. you; he C. your; it D. your; that

16. ---That woman has a bag in her right hand. What's in her _____ hand

A. another B. other C. one D. the other

17. We decided to go for a field trip with some friends of _______.

A. us B. our C. ours D. ourselves

18. ---Is there a bus to the zoo

---I'm afraid there's _______ bus to the zoo.

A. no B. any C. some D. none

19. You forgot your dictionary You may have _______.

A. me B. my C. mine D. myself

20. This is ______ classroom. Where is _______

our; them B. us; they C. our; theirs D. ours; theirs

.答案

1.B 2.D 3.B 4.C 5.B 6.B 7.A 8.D 9.C 10.A 11.C 12.D 13.A 14.C 15.A 16.B 17.C 18.A 19.C 20.C

12 名词

.概念

名词是表示人,事物,地点或抽象概念的名称的词,有专有名词和普通名词之分,还有可数名词与不可数名词之分.

.相关知识点精讲

1.名词复数的规则变化

情况

构成方法

读音

例词

一般情况

-s

清辅音后读/s/

map-maps

浊辅音和元音后读 /z/

bag-bags /car-cars

s, sh, ch, x等结尾

-es

/iz/

bus-buses/ watch-watches

ce, se, ze,等结尾

-s

/iz/

license-licenses

以辅音字母+y结尾

y i再加es

/z/

baby---babies

2.其它名词复数的规则变化

1) y结尾的专有名词,或元音字母+y 结尾的名词变复数时,直接加s变复数.例如:

two Marys the Henrys

monkey---monkeys holiday---holidays

2) o 结尾的名词,变复数时:

a. s,: photo---photos piano---pianos

radio---radios zoo---zoos;

b. es,:potato--potatoes tomato--tomatoes

c. 上述ab两种方法均可,zero---zeros / zeroes.

3) ffe 结尾的名词变复数时:

a. s,: belief---beliefs roof---roofs

safe---safes gulf---gulfs;

b. f,fe ves,:half---halves

knife---knives leaf---leaves wolf---wolves

wife---wives life---lives thief---thieves;

c. 上述ab两种方法均可,handkerchief: handkerchiefs / handkerchieves.

3.名词复数的不规则变化

1) child---children foot---feet tooth---teeth

mouse---mice man---men woman---women

注意:由一个词加 man woman构成的合成词,其复数形式也是 -men -women,an Englishman,two Englishmen.German不是合成词,故复数形式为Germans;Bowman是姓,其复数是the Bowmans.

2) 单复同形,deer,sheep,fish,Chinese,Japanese ,li,jin,yuan,two li,three mu,four jin.但除人民币的元,,分外,美元,英镑,法郎等都有复数形式.:a dollar, two dollars; a meter, two meters.

3)集体名词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数.例如:

people police cattle 等本身就是复数,不能说 a people,a police,a cattle,但可以说a person,a policeman,a head of cattle, the English,the British,the French,the Chinese,the Japanese,the Swiss 等名词,表示国民总称时,作复数用,The Chinese are industries and brave. 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的.

4) s结尾,仍为单数的名词,:

a. maths,politics,physics等学科名词,一般是不可数名词,为单数.

b. news 为不可数名词.

c. the United States,the United Nations 应视为单数.

The United Nations was organized in 1945. 联合国是1945年组建起来的.

d. 以复数形式出现的书名,剧名,报纸,杂志名,也可视为单数.例如:

"The Arabian Nights" is a very interesting story-book. 《一千零一夜》是一本非常有趣的故事书.

5) 表示由两部分构成的东西,:glasses (眼镜) trousers, clothes,若表达具体数目,要借助数量词 pair(,); suit(); a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers.

6) 另外还有一些名词,其复数形式有时可表示特别意思,:goods货物,waters水域,fishes(各种).

4. 不可数名词量的表示

1)物质名词

a. 当物质名词转化为个体名词时为可数.

比较:Cake is a kind of food. 蛋糕是一种食物. (不可数)

These cakes are sweet. 这些蛋糕很好吃. (可数)

b. 当物质名词表示该物质的种类时,可数.例如:

This factory produces steel. (不可数)

We need various steels. (可数)

c. 当物质名词表示份数时,可数.例如:

Our country is famous for tea. 我国因茶叶而闻名.

Two teas, please. 请来两杯茶.

2) 抽象名词表示具体的事例时也可数.例如:

four freedoms 四大自由 the four modernizations四个现代化

物质名词和抽象名词可以借助单位词表一定的数量,a glass of water 一杯水/ a piece of advice 一则建议.

5. 定语名词的复数

名词作定语一般用单数,但也有以下例外.

用复数作定语.例如:

sports meeting 运动会 students reading-room 学生阅览室

talks table 谈判桌 the foreign languages department 外语系

2) man, woman, gentleman等作定语时,其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定.例如:

men workers women teachers gentlemen officials

3) 有些原有s结尾的名词,作定语时,s保留.例如:

goods train (货车) arms produce 武器生产

customs papers 海关文件 clothes brush 衣刷

4) 数词+名词作定语时,这个名词一般保留单数形式.例如:

two-dozen eggs 两打鸡蛋 a ten-mile walk 十英里路

two-hundred trees 两百棵树 a five-year plan. 一个五年计划

6. 不同国籍人的单复数

国籍

总称(谓语用复数)

单数

复数

中国人

the Chinese

a Chinese

two Chinese

瑞士人

the Swiss

a Swiss

two Swiss

澳大利亚人

the Australians

an Australian

two Australians

俄国人

the Russians

a Russian

two Russians

意大利人

the Italians

an Italian

two Italians

希腊人

the Greek

a Greek

two Greeks

法国人

the French

a Frenchman

two Frenchmen

日本人

the Japanese

a Japanese

two Japanese

美国人

the Americans

an American

two Americans

印度人

the Indians

an Indian

two Indians

加拿大人

the Canadians

a Canadian

two Canadians

德国人

the Germans

a Germans

two Germans

英国人

the English

an Englishman

two Englishmen

瑞典人

the Swedish

a Swede

two Swedes

7. 名词的格

英语中有些名词可以加"'s"来表示所有关系,带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格,:a teacher's book.名词所有格的规则如下:

1) 单数名词词尾加"'s",复数名词词尾没有s,也要加"'s",the boy's bag 男孩的书包,men's room 男厕所.

2) 若名词已有复数词尾-s ,只加" ' ",:the workers' struggle 工人的斗争.

3) 凡不能加"'s"的名词,都可以用"名词+of +名词"的结构来表示所有关系,:the title of the song 歌的名字.

4) 在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时,名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名词,:the barber's 理发店.

5) 如果两个名词并列,并且分别有's,则表示"分别有";只有一个's,则表示'共有'.例如:

John's and Mary's rooms(两间) John and Mary's room(一间)

6) 复合名词或短语,'s 加在最后一个词的词尾.例如:a month or two's absence

.巩固练习

1.He was eager to make some extra money, since during these years he could hardly live on his_______.

a. little wage b. few wage c. wage d. wages

2.Most of the houses in the village were burnt to ______ during the war.

a. an ash b. the ash c. ash d. ashes

3.The students at colleges or universities are making ______ for the coming New Year.

a. many preparations b. much preparation c. preparations d. preparation

4.Paiting in _____ is one of their spare-time activities.

a. oil b. an oil c. oils d. the oil

5.In the view of the foreign experts, there wasn't ____ oil here.

a. much b. lots of c. a great deal of d. many

6.The large houses are being painted, but ______.

a. of great expense b. at a great expense c. in a lot of expenses d. by high expense

7.The room was small and contained far too ______.

a.much new furniture c. much new furnitures

b.many new furniture d. many new furnitures

8.Jim was late for two classes this morning. He said that he forgot both of the ______.

a. rooms number b. room number c. room's numbers d. room numbers

9.Computers can do ______ work in a short time, but a man can not do ______ by himself.

a great many…many c. much…a great deal

b.great deal of…much d. many…a great many

10.She didn't know _____ he had been given.

a. how many information c. how many informations

b. the number of information d. how much information

11.He invited all of his ______ to join his wedding party.

a. comrade-in-arms c. comrades-in-arm

b. comrades-in-arms d. comrade-in-arm

12.All the ______ in the hospital got a rise last month.

a. women doctors c. woman doctors

b. women doctor d. woman doctor

13.After ten years, all these youngsters became_____.

a. growns-ups c. growns-up

b. grown-up d. grown-ups

14.The police investigated those _____ about the accident.

a. stander-by c. standers-by

b. stander-bys d. standers-bys

15.The Nazi kept those ______ in their concentration camp.

a.prisoner-of-wars c. prisoners-of-war

b.prisoners-of-wars d. prisoner-of-war

16.The manager was greatly appreciate that _____ made by Linda lately.

a. new reel b. news reel c. new-reels d. news reels

17.Mary's dress is similar in appearance to her ______.

a. elder sister b. elder sister's c. elder sisters d. elder sisters dress

18.All the people at the conference are ______.

a. mathematic teachers c. mathematics teacher

b.mathematics teachers d. mathematic's teachers

19.Professor Mackay told us that ______ of lead are its softness and its resistance.

a. some property c. properties

b. some properties d. property

20.Physics _____ with matter and motion.

a. deal b. deals c. dealing d. are

.答案

DDCCACADCDCADBBBBCCB

13 数词

.概念:

数词分两类:基数词和序数词.表示数目的词叫基数词,表示须序的词叫序数词.

.相关知识点精讲

1.基数词

1)基数词一般可写成如345three hundred and forty-five.

2)基数词一般是单数形式,但遇下列情况,常用复数:

a. of 短语连用,表示概数,不能与具体数目连用,scores of people 指许多人;

b. 在一些表示"一排""一组"的词组里.例如:

They arrived in twos and threes. 他们三三两两的到了.

c. 表示"几十岁".

d. 表示"年代", in +the +数词复数.

e. 在乘法运算的一种表示法里,Three fives is(are)fifteen.

2.序数词

序数词的缩写形式如first---1st second---2nd thirty-first---31st.

3.数词的用法

1)倍数表示法

a. 主语+谓语+倍数(或分数)+ as + adj. + as.例如

I have three times as many as you. 我有你三倍那么多.

b. 主语+谓语+倍数(分数)+ the size (amount,length) of.例如:

The earth is 49 times the size of the moon. 地球是月球的49.

c. 主语+谓语+倍数(分数)+ 形容词(副词)比较级+ than.例如:

The grain output is 8 percent higher this year than that of last year. 今年比去年粮食产量增加8%.

d. 还可以用by+倍数,表示增加多少倍.例如:

The production of grain has been increased by four times this year. 今年粮食产量增加了4.

2)分数表示法的构成:基数词代表分子,序数词代表分母.分子大于1,分子的序数词用单数,分母序数词用复数.例如:

1/3 one-third; 3/37 three and three-sevenths.

.巩固练习

1.______ martyrs have heroically laid down their lives for the people.

a. Thousand upon thousand of b. Thousand and thousands of

c. Thousands upon thousands of d. Thousand and thousand of

2.They received ______ of letters about their TV programs.

a. dozen b. dozen and dozen c score d. dozens

3.Who is that man,______ in the front row

a. one b. the one c. first d. the first

4.We have produced ______ this year as we did in 1993.

a. as much cotton twice b. as twice much cotton

c. much as twice cotton d. twice as much cotton

5.The earth is about ______ as the moon.

a. as fifty time big b. fifty times as big c. as big fifty time d. fifty as times big

6.The population of many Alaskan cities has ______ in the past three years.

a. more than doubled b. more doubled than c. much than doubled d. much doubled than

7.The moon is about _____ in diameter as diameter as the earth.

a. one-three as large b. one three as large c. one-third as large d. one third as large

8.Five hundred yuan a month _____ enough to live on.

a. is b. are c. is being d. has been

9.______ of the buildings were ruined.

a. Three fourth b. Three four c. Three-fourths d. Three-four

10.Consult _____ for questions about earthquakes.

a. the six index b. index six c. sixth index d. index numbering six

.答案

CDDDBACACB

14 冠词

.概念

冠词是一个虚词,它置于名词之前,限定名词的意义.冠词可分为定冠词,不定冠词和零冠词三类.

.相关知识点精讲

1. a用于辅音发音开头的词前, :a book; an用于元音发音开头的词前,:an apple, an hour. 请区别:a useful machine, an umbrella, a "u", an "h".

2.指上文提到过的人或物,用定冠词the.

3.在世界上独一无二的事物前用定冠词the. :the sun, the moon, the earth.

4.the用于序数词,表方位的名词和形容词最高级前.the first, the best , in the south.

5.在复数姓氏前加the,表示××一家人,常看成复数.:the Browns.

6.在介词短语中常用定冠词the,:in the box ,behind the chair.

7.不能用定冠词the的几个方面: (1)在节日,星期,月份,季节,年等词前不用冠词.:in summer, in August 请区别:in the spring of 1945. (这里表示特指,故加the)(2)一日三餐和球类运动名不用冠词.:have breakfast ,play football

(3)一些固定词组中,:go to bed ,go to school, by bus ,at night.

8.在有些词组中,有冠词和无冠词意思不同,请注意区别:

in front of 在…前面, in the front of 在…范围内的前部

in hospital (生病)住院, in the hospital 在医院里.

.巩固练习

1.When Linda was a child, her mother always let her have ______ bed.

a. the breakfast in b. the breakfast in the c. breakfast in d. breakfast in the

2.He has promised to give up ______ hundreds of times.

a. tobacco b. tobacco c. the tobacco d. tobaccos

3.______ usually go to church every Sunday.

a. The Brown b. A Brown c. Browns d. The Browns

4.The train is running fifty miles ______.

a. an hour b. one hour c. the hour d. a hour

5.He can play almost every kind of music instrument but he is good ______.

a.at the flute b. at flute c. at a flute d. at that flute

6.The investigators found that more should be done for ______ in India.

a.those poor b. a poor c. poor d. the poor

7.You look in high spirit. You must have ______ during your holiday.

a. wonderful time b. a wonderful time c. the wonderful time d. some wonderful time

8.The city assigned a policeman to the school crossing because ______ traffic there was so heavy.

a .a b. an c. the d. one

9.A new teacher was sent to the village in place of ______ one who had retired.

a. a b. the c. an d. its

10.Virtue and vice are before you;______ leads you to happiness,______ to misery.

a. the former…latter b. a former…a latter

c. the former…the latter d. former…latter

.答案

CBDAADBCBC

15 介词

.概念:

介词表示它后面的名词或相当于名词的其他结构与句中其他成分的关系.

.相关知识点精讲

1.表示地点位置的介词

1)at ,in, on, to

at (1)表示在小地方; (2)表示"在……附近,旁边"

in (1)表示 在大地方; (2)表示"在…范围之内".

on 表示毗邻,接壤

to 表示在……范围外,不强调是否接壤

He arrived at the station at ten.

He is sitting at the desk.

He arrived in Shanghai yesterday.

Jiangsu lies in the east of China.

Russia lies on the north of China.

Fujian is to the south of Jiangsu Province.

2)above, over, on 在……上

above 指在……上方,不强调是否垂直, below相对;

over指垂直的上方,under相对,over与物体有一定的空间,不直接接触.

on表示某物体上面并与之接触.

The bird is flying above my head.

There is a bridge over the river.

He put his watch on the desk.

3)below, under 在……下面

under表示在…正下方

below表示在……下,不一定在正下方

There is a cat under the table.

Please write your name below the line.

2.表示时间的介词

1)in , on,at 在……时

in表示较长时间,如世纪,朝代,时代,,季节,月及一般(非特指)的早,,晚等.

in the 20th century, in the 1950s, in 1989, in summer, in January, in the morning, in the night, in one's life , in one's thirties.

on表示具体某一天及其早,,.

on May 1st, on Monday, on New Year's Day, on a cold night in January, on a fine morning, on Sunday afternoon.

at表示某一时刻或较短暂的时间,或泛指圣诞节,复活节等.

at 3:20, at this time of year, at the beginning of, at the end of , at the age of , at Christmas, at night, at noon, at this moment.

注意:last, next, this, that, some, every 等词之前一律不用介词.:We meet every day.

2)in, after 在……之后

"in +段时间"表示将来的一段时间以后;

"after+段时间"表示过去的一段时间以后;

"after+将来点时间"表示将来的某一时刻以后.

My mother will come back in three or four days.

He arrived after five months.

She will appear after five o'clock this afternoon.

3)from, since 自从……

from仅说明什么时候开始,不说明某动作或情况持续多久;

since表示某动作或情况持续至说话时刻,通常与完成时连用.

He studied the piano from the age of three.

They have lived here since 1978.

4)after, behind 在……之后

after主要用于表示时间;

behind主要用于表示位置.

We shall leave after lunch.

Lucy is hiding behind an old house.

3.表运动方向的介词:across, through 通过,穿过

across表示横过,即从物体表面通过,on有关;

through穿过,即从物体内部穿过,in有关.

She swam across the river.

He walked through the forest.

4.表示"在……之间"的介词:between, among

between指在两个人或两个事物之间;

among指在三个或三个以上的人或事物之间.

There is a football match between Class One and Class Two on the playground.

The teacher is standing among the students.

5.表示其他意义的介词

1)on ,about 关于

on 表示这本书,这篇文章或演说是严肃的,或学术性的,可供专门研究这一问题的人阅读;

about表示内容较为普通,不那么正式.

There will be a lecture on economics this afternoon.

He is writing a book on cooking.

He told me a lot about his life in the summer vocation.

2)by, with, in 表示方法,手段,工具

by 以……方法,手段或泛指某种交通工具;

with 表示用 …工具,手段,一般接具体的工具和手段;

in 表示用…方式,用…语言(语调,笔墨,颜色);

He makes a living by selling newspapers.

He broke the window with a stone.

The foreigner spoke to us in English.

3)except, besides 除了

except 除……之外,不包括在内;

besides 除……之外,包括在内.

Except Mr. Wang, we went to see the film.(王先生没去)

Besides Mr. Wang, we also went to see the film.(王先生也去了)

.巩固练习

Taiwan is ________ the southeast of China.(in, on, to)

Go _________ the bridge _________ the river, you'll find the shop.(across, through; over, above)

I go to school __________7:30 every morning.(in, on, at)

He would like to meet her __________8:00 and 9:00 tomorrow morning.(between, among )

The Greens have lived in China ________ three years.(in, for, after)

We go to school every day ________ Saturday and Sunday.(except, besides)

He wrote the letter _________ ink.(by, with ,in)

She returned to her country _________five years.(in, after, for)

There is a big tree _________ our classroom.(after, behind)

I usually go to work _________ bike.(by, on, with)

.答案

1.in 2.across, over 3.at, 4.between 5.for 6.except 7.in 8.after 9.behind 10.by

16 连词

.概念

连词是用来连接词,短语,从句或句子的词.连词不作成分.

.相关知识点精讲

1.表示并列关系的连词有:and, bothand, not only but also…和neithernor…等

1)and:,并且

A:基本用法:

"and"表示 "","并且"的意思,用来连接对等关系的字和字,片语和片语,句子和句子.

I enjoy basketball , football and table tennis.

The weather becomes colder and colder.

B:特别用法:

祁使句后连接and,有条件句作用,此时and=if you,you'll

Go straight on, and you'll see the library.==If you go straight on, you will see the library.

2)bothand…既…也…,(两者)都…

A,bothand…构成的词组作主语时,谓语动词用复数.

Both Jim and Kate are from England.

B,bothand…否定句表示部分否定.

You can't speak both German and English.

Both my father and my mother aren't doctors.

3)neithernor:既不…也不…

neithernor…连接两个并列主语时,谓语动词靠近哪个主语就与哪个主语保持 "人称" ""的一致,即采取就近原则.

Neither I nor he has seen the play before.

4)not onlybut also:不但…而且…

not onlybut also…连接两个主语后的谓语动词也遵循就近原则.

Not only the mother but also the children are ill.

2.表示转折关系的连词有:but, however, yet, still,while.

Mary was a nice girl, but she had one shortcoming.

Tom got up early, yet he failed to catch the train.

He was very tired, still he kept on walking.

Your composition is fairly good, however, there is still some

room for improvement.

Jane is hard working ,while her sister is quite lazy.

3.表示选择关系的并列连词有:or, eitheror,whether or…等.

1)or:,否则

A:基本用法

or 表示 "" 的意思,使用于两者之中选择一个的时候.

----Is your friend English or American ----American.

He doesn't like dumplings or noodles.

B:特别用法

祁使句后连接or , "如果…,否则…",有转折的意思,此时 or =if you don't ,you'll

Hurry up, or you'll be late.=If you don't hurry up, you'll be late.

2)eitheror:或者…或者…; 不是…就是…;要么…要么…

eitheror…连接两个并列主语时,谓语动词靠近哪个主语就与哪个主语保持 "人称" ""的一致,即就近原则.

Either you or I am right.

Does either she or they like English

eitheror…引导的否定句是完全否定.

She isn't either a student or a teacher.

3)whetheror…不管…还是…

She is always cheerful, whether at home or at school.

4.表示因果关系的并列连词有:for(因为),so(所以).

He is not at school today, for he has a bad cold.

It was late, so I went home.

5.引导时间状语从句的从属连词有:before, after, when, while, as, till, until, since, as soon as.

After they had planted their crops, they took a rest.

We have learned six lessons since he began to teach us.

As soon as he gets to Beijing, he'll call me.

1) when, while, as 都表示"当……时",when从句谓语动词既可以是瞬间动词也可以是延续性动词,可用于主从句动作同时发生或从句动作先于主句动作发生.while从句谓语动词只能是延续性动词,侧重主从句动作同时发生.as引导一个持续性动作,多用于主从句动作同时发生,强调"一边……一边".

When I came in, my father was cooking.

I came in when/while my father was cooking.

He sang as he walked.

2)until用法:当主句谓语动词是延续性动词时,主从句都用肯定式,译为"直到……为止";当主句谓语动词是瞬间动词时,主句用否定式,从句用肯定式,not..until, 译为"直到……才".

Mr. Green waited until his children came back.(格林先生一直等到他的孩子们回来)

Mr. Green didn't go to bed until his children came back. (格林先生直到他的孩子们回来才睡觉)

6. 引导条件状语从句的从属连词有:if(如果), unless(除非,如果……不).

If you don't go soon, you'll be late.=Unless you go soon, you'll be late.

7.引导原因状语从句的从属连词有 because, as, since.

because"因为"语气最强,回答why提问时只能用because,其引导的从句可放在句首或句末;as"由于",since"既然"语气不如because,引导的从句常置于句首;for是并列连词,语气最弱,对前面分句加以解释或补充说明,其引导的分句常置于句末且用逗号隔开.

He didn't go to school because he was ill.

As it was raining, we went there by bus.

Since everybody is here, let's begin.

It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet.

注意: because so不能同时使用.

8.引导让步状语从句的从属连词有:although/though(虽然,尽管), even though/if (即使)

Although/ Though it is a very young country, it is very rich.

Even if/ though you were here yesterday, you couldn't help him.

注意:although/though 引导的从句不能与but连用,但可与yet, still连用.

9.引导目的状语从句的从属连词有so thatin order that(以便,为了).

The teacher spoke loudly so that /in order that we could hear him clearly.

10.引导结果状语从句的从属连词有:so that(结果是)so/suchthat(如此…以至于).

It was very cold, so that the water in the bowl froze.

He got there so early that he got a good seat.

It is such a heavy box that nobody can move it.

11.引导比较状语从句的从属连词有: asas(与……一样),not as/so as(不及,赶不上),than().

I know you better than she does.

He works as carefully as she.

I can't run as/so fast as you.

12.引导名词性从句的从属连词有:that if/whether(是否).

We know that the earth goes around the sun.(宾语从句)

I wonder if he has received my e-mail. (宾语从句)

Whether he'll go there hasn't been decided.(主语从句)

注意:在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,如果主句是将来时,从句要用一般现在时.

I'll go on with the work when I come back tomorrow.

He won't come unless he is invited.

.巩固练习

1,I don't like reading watching TV. What about you "I don't like reading all day, I like watching TV plays."

A.and, but B.and, and C.or, and D.or, but 2,You won't know the value(价值) of the health you lose it.

A.until B.after C.when D.because

3,We bought Granny a present, she didn't like it.

A.but B.and C.or D.so

4,Study hard, you will pass the exam.

A.so B.for C.but D.and

5,Put on more clothes, you'll catch cold.

A.and B.for C.or D.but

6,My shoes are worn out, I need new ones.

A.so B.if C.because D.and

7,He ran fast he won the race.

A.enough …to B.so …that C.too…to D.both…and

8,He is only ten months. He can read write.

A.either…or B.neither…nor C.both…and D.so…that

9,She said she might come Saturday Sunday .

A.neither…nor B.nither…or

C.too…to D.so…that

10,If Tom Mike asks for their car, tell him to come tomorrow.

A.or B.and C.with D.but

11,It was already ten o'clock we got to the museum this morning.

A.that B.when C.if D.for

12,It's a long time we met last.

A.so B.after C.since D.before

13,That maths problem is difficult nobody can do it.

A.too…to B.very…that

C.so…that D.very …but

14,I'll give her the message she comes back.

A.since B.before C.until D.as soon as

15, the teacher came into the classroom, many students were talking to each other.

A.While B.If C.Since D.When

16,People often mistake us for each other we are twins.

A.if B.when C.because D.after

17,Could you tell me in your home town in winter

A.if it often snowed B.whether does it often snow

C.if it often snow D.whether it often snows

18,Are you sure Mr. Li will come to your birthday party

A.if B.that C.for D.when

19, Lily Lucy like singing.

A.Either…or B.Beither…nor …

C.Both…and D.So…that

20,Read the sentences slowly we can understand what you read.

A.so that B.before C.until D.because

.答案

1,D 2,A 3,A 4,D 5,C 6,A 7,B 8,B 9,B 10,A 11,B 12,C 13,C 14,D 15,D 16,C 17,D 18,B 19,C 20,A

17 构词法

.概念

英语的构词法主要有:合成法,转化法,派生法,混成法,截短法和词首字母缩略法.

.相关知识点精讲

1.转化法

英语中,有的名词可作动词,有的形容词可作副词或动词,这种把一种词性用作另一种词性而词形不变的方法叫作转化法.

1)动词转化为名词

很多动词可以转化为名词,大多意思没有多大的变化(如下①);有时意思有一定变化(如下②);有的与一个动词和不定冠词构成短语,表示一个动作(如下③).例如:

Let's go out for a walk.我们到外面去散散步吧.

He is a man of strong build.他是一个体格健壮的汉子.

Let's have a swim.咱们游泳吧.

2)名词转化为动词

很多表示物件(如下①),身体部位(如下②),某类人(如下③)的名词可以用作动词来表示动作,某些抽象名词(如下④)也可作动词.例如:

Did you book a seat on the plane 你订好飞机座位了吗

Please hand me the book.请把那本书递给我.

She nursed her husband back to health.她看护丈夫,使他恢复了健康.

We lunched together.我们在一起吃了午餐.

3)形容词转化为动词

有少数形容词可以转化为动词.例如:

We will try our best to better our living conditions.我们要尽力改善我们的生活状况.

4)副词转化为动词

有少数副词可以转化为动词.例如:

Murder will out.(谚语)恶事终必将败露.

5)形容词转化为名词

表示颜色的形容词常可转化为名词(如下①);某些形容词如old, young, poor, rich, wounded, injured等与the连用,表示一类人,作主语时,谓语用复数(如下②).例如:

You should be dressed in black at the funeral.你在葬礼中该穿黑色衣服.

The old in our village are living a happy life.我们村的老年人过着幸福的生活.

2.派生法

在词根前面加前缀或在词根后面加后缀构成一个与原单词意义相近或截然相反的新词叫作派生法.

1)前缀

除少数前缀外,前缀一般改变单词的意义,不改变词性;后缀一般改变词类,而不引起词义的变化.

(1)表示否定意义的前缀常用的有dis-, il-, im-, in-, ir-, mis-, non-, un-,在单词的前面加这类前缀常构成与该词意义相反的新词.例如:

appear出现→disappear消失

correct正确的→incorrect不正确的

lead带领→mislead领错

stop停下→non-stop不停

(2)表示其他意义的前缀常用的有a-(多构成表语形容词), anti- (反对;抵抗), auto- (自动), co- (共同), en- (使), inter- (互相), re- (;), sub- (下面的;;), tele- (强调距离).例如:

alone单独的antigas防毒气的

autochart自动图表

cooperate合作enjoy使高兴

internet互联网reuse再用

subway地铁telephone电话

2)后缀

英语单词不仅可以通过加前缀构成新词,也可加后缀构成新词.后缀通常会改变单词的词性,构成意义相近的其他词性;少数后缀还会改变词义,变为与原来词义相反的新词.

(1)构成名词的后缀常用的有-ence,-(e)r/ -or (从事某事的人),-ese (某地人),-ess (雌性),-ful (一……),-ian (精通……的人),-ist (专业人员),-ment (性质;状态),-ness (性质;状态),-tion(动作;过程).例如:

differ不同于→difference区别

write写→writer作家

Japan日本→Japanese日本人

act表演→actress女演员

mouth口→mouthful一口

music音乐→musician音乐家

(2)构成动词的后缀常用的有-(e)n (多用于形容词之后),-fy (使……化),-ize (使……成为).例如:

widewiden加宽

beautybeautify美化

purepurify提纯

realrealize意识到

organorganize组织

(3)构成形容词的后缀常用的有-al,

-able (有能力的),-(a)n(某国人的),-en (多用于表示材料的名词后),-ern (方向的),-ese(某国人的),-ful,-(ic)al,-ish,-ive,-less (表示否定),-like (像……的),-ly,-ous,-some,-y (表示天气).例如:

nature自然→natural自然的

reason道理→reasonable有道理的

America美国→American美国的

China中国→Chinese中国人的

gold金子→golden金的

east东→eastern东方的

child孩子→childish孩子气的

snow雪→snowy雪的

(4)构成副词的常用后缀有-ly (主要用于形容词之后表示方式或程度),-ward(s) (主要用于表示方位的词之后表示方向).例如:

angry生气的→angrily生气地

to到→towards朝……,向……

east东方→eastward向东

(5)构成数词的后缀有-teen (十几),-ty (几十),-th (构成序数词).例如:

six六→sixteen十六→sixteenth第十六

four四→forty四十→fortieth第四十

3.合成法

1)合成名词

构成方式例词

名词+名词weekend周末

名词+动词daybreak黎明

名词+动名词handwriting书法

名词+及物动词+er/or pain-killer止痛药

名词+介词+名词editor-in-chief总编辑

代词+名词she-wolf母狼

动词+名词typewriter打字机

动名词+名词reading-room阅览室

现在分词+名词flying-fish飞鱼

形容词+名词gentleman绅士

副词+动词outbreak爆发

介词+名词afternoon下午

2)合成形容词

名词+形容词snow-white雪白的

名词+现在分词English-speaking讲英语的

名词+to+名词face-to-face面对面的

名词+过去分词man-made人造的

数词+名词one-way单行的

数词+名词+形容词two-year-old两岁的

数词+名词+ed five-storeyed五层的

动词+副词see-through透明的

形容词+名词high-class高级的

形容词+名词+ed noble-minded高尚的

形容词+形容词light-blue浅蓝色的

形容词+现在分词good-looking相貌好看的

副词+形容词ever-green常青的

副词+现在分词hard-working勤劳的

副词+过去分词well-known著名的

副词+名词fast-food专门提供快餐服务的

介词+名词downhill下坡的

3)合成动词

名词+动词sleep-walk梦游

形容词+动词white-wash粉刷

副词+动词overthrow推翻

4)合成副词

形容词+名词hotfoot匆忙地

形容词+副词everywhere到处

副词+副词however尽管如此

介词+名词beforehand事先

介词+副词forever永远

5)合成代词

代词宾格+self herself她自己

物主代词+self myself我自己

形容词+名词anything任何东西

6)合成介词

副词+名词inside在……里面

介词+副词within在……之内

副词+介词into进入

4.截短法(缩略法)

截短法,即将单词缩写,词义和词性保持不变,主要有截头,去尾,截头去尾等形式.

1)截头

telephonephone

aeroplaneplane

omnibusbus

2)去尾

mathematicsmaths

co-operateco-op

examinationexam

kilogramkilo

laboratorylab

taxicabtaxi

3)截头去尾

influenzaflu

refrigeratorfridge

prescriptionscript

5.混合法(混成法)

混合法,即将两个词混合或各取一部分紧缩而成一个新词.后半部分表示主体;前半部分表示属性.

news broadcastnewscast新闻广播

television broadcasttelecast电视播送

smoke and fogsmog烟雾

helicopter airportheliport直升飞机场

6.首尾字母缩略法

首尾字母缩略法,即用单词首尾字母组成一个新词.读音主要有两种形式,即各字母分别读音;作为一个单词读音.

very important personVIP (读字母音)要人;大人物

televisionTV (读字母音)电视

Testing of English as a Foreign LanguageTOEFL托福

Nato

.巩固练习

1.That man was________enough not to tell the manager that he would not do the job.

A.care B.careful C.careless D.carelessness

2.The soldier died for saving the child,so his________ is heavier than Mount Tai.

A.die B.dead C.died D.death

3.The child looked________at his brother who was badly wounded.

A.sadly B.sadness C.sadly D.sad

4.He is an expert at chemistry.We all call him a ________.

A.chemistry B.chemical

C.chemist D.physician

5.The three- ________chair isn't suitable for a young child.He may fall off.

A.legging B.legged C.legs D.leged

6.Stephenson became the________railway engineer in the world.

A.lead B.leader C.leading D.leadership

7.When the teacher praised him for working out the maths problem,Jack looked________about at his classmates.

A.proud B.proudly C.pride D.pridely

8.To everyone's ________,the girl finished the job quite well.

A.satisfied B.satisfactory

C.satisfying D.satisfaction

9.—What are you doing here

Oh,my teacher asked me to write a passage about ________in English.

You can write________passage in English

A.600 words;a 600-words

B.600-word;a 600-words

C.600 words;a 600-word

D.600 words;a 600-words

10.No one should enter the spot without the________of the police.

A.permit B.permission

C.permitting D.permittence

11.You must come with us to the police ________.Our head is waiting for you.

A.headquarters B.headline

C.headmaster D.headache

12.Letting that animal escape was no accident;you did it ________.

A.intend B.intention

C.intentionally D.intentional

13.The shop owner welcomed all the guests with a________smile.

A.practice B.practise

C.practical D.practiced

14.The________ordered him to pay a $100 fine.

A.judger B.judgment

C.judge D.judgement

15.My TV is out of order.Can you tell me what is the________news about Iraq War

A.lately B.latest

C.later D.latter

16.The Great Wall is more than 6000 li in ________.

A.longer B.length

C.long D.longing

17.To my ________,I passed the exam easily.

A.joy B.joyful

C.joyless D.joyness

18.Canada is mainly an________country.

A.English-speaking B.speak-English

C.spoken-English D.English-spoken

19.How________ he is! He is always acting________.He is really a ________.

A.foolish;foolishly;fool

B.fool;foolish;fool

C.foolish;fool;fool

D.foolishly;foolish;fool

20.The necklace that she lost is very expensive.It's of great ________.

A.valuable B.value

C.valueless D.unvaluable

21.There were________fish in the river in South America.

A.in danger B.danger

C.dangerous D.dangerless

22.The letter "b" in the word "doubt" is________.

A.sound B.silent

C.silence D.sounded

23.The child looked at me________.

A.stranger B.strangely

C.strange D.strangeless

24.The black people were against slavery and fought for their________bravely.

A.free B.freely

C.freedom D.frees

25.What you said sounded________ but in fact it was untrue.

A.reasonable B.reasonful

C.reasonless D.unreason

26.We have to learn________technology from other countries.

A.advance B.advancing

C.advantage D.advanced

27.The children live in a village ________.They come here almost every day.

A.nearby B.near

C.nearly D.near by

28.Mr Black is an ________in the army,not an________in the government.You can not easily find him in his________.

A.official;officer;office

B.officer;office;official

C.official;official;official

D.officer;official;office

29.You'd better give up smoking if you want to keep ________.

A.health B.healthy

C.healthily D.healthier

30.________ speaking,I didn't do it on purpose.

A.Honestly B.Honest C.Honesty D.Dishonest

[参考答案]

1-5 BDACB 6-10 CBDCB 11-15 ACDCB 16-20 BAAAB

21-25 CBBCA 26-30 DADBA

 

 

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