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在下列含有状语从句的复合句中，若从句的主句是it或与主句的主语相同，且在谓语中含有be时，常省略从句的主语和be：由when，while，as soon as, once，whenever引导的时间状语从句；if，unless引导的条件状语从句；though，although，even if，even though引导的让步状语从句；as though，as if，as引导的方式状语从句；because引导的原因状语从句；wherever引导的地点状语从句。例如：
Look out for cars when (you are) crossing the street.
Drop in on me if (it is) possible.
1. When_______different cultures, we often pay attention only to the differences without noticing the many similarities. (2006浙江)
A. compared B. being compared C. comparing D. having compared
2. When first_______to the market, these products enjoyed great success. (2004全国卷Ⅱ)
A. introducing B. introduced C. introduce D. being introduced
3. It shames me to say it, but I told a lie when_______at the meeting by my boss. (2004全国卷Ⅳ)
A. questioning B. having questioned C. questioned D. to be questioned
4. The man we followed suddenly stopped and looked as if_______whether he was going in the right direction. (2003安徽春)
A. seeing B. having seen C. to have seen D. to see
5. Generally speaking, _______according to the directions, the drug has no side effect.(2003上海卷)
A. when taking B. when taken C. when to take D. when to be taken
6. When_______, the museum will be open to the public next year. (2002上海春)
A. completed B. completing C. being completed D. to be completed
7. Though_______money, his parents managed to send him to university. (2002上海)
A. lacked B. lacking of
C. lacking D. lacked in
8. The research is so designed that once_______nothing can be done to change it. (2002全国)
A. begins B. having begun C. beginning D. begun
9. When_______help, one often says “Thank you.” or “It’s kind of you”. (2005福建)
A. offering B. to offer C. to be offered D. offered
Keys： 1. C。when之后省略了we are。2. B。when之后省略了they were。3. C。when之后省略了I was。4. D。as if之后省略了he was going。5. B。when之后省略了it is。6. A。when之后省略了it is。7. B。Though之后省略了they were。8. D。once之后省略了it is。9. D。when之后省略了one is。
... as和such ... as引导的定语从句中，可以省略与主句相同的部分；the way后面的定语从句中，可以省略that或in which。
1. —You are always working. Come on, let’s go shopping.
—_______you ever want to do is going shopping. (2002北京)
A. Anything B. Something C. All D. That
2. Is this the reason_______at the meeting for his carelessness in his work? (2002上海)
A. he explained B. what he explained C. how he explained D. why he explained
3. What surprised me was not what he said but_______he said it. (2004湖北)
A. the way B. in the way that C. in the way D. the way which
4. It is easy to do the repair. _______you need is a hammer and some nails. (2004天津)
A. Something B. All C. Both D. Everything
5. That’s an unpleasant thing to say about your father after_____has done for you.(2004全国)
A. something B. anything C. all D. that
Keys： 1. C。句意：你只知道去购物。2. A。he explained 前省略了that，其中that引导定语从句并作explain的宾语。3. A。the way 前省略了that或in which。4. B。All作need的宾语。5. C。all后省略了that。
I watched him disappear in the distance.
In the dream Peter saw himself_______by a fierce wolf, and he woke suddenly with a start. (2006上海春）
A. chased B. to be chased
C. be chased D. having been chased
简析： 答案是A。see sb. done“看到某人被……”，过去分词作宾语的补足语。
—I’ll be away on a business trip. Would you mind looking after my cat?
—Not at all, I’d be happy to.
1. —Does your brother intend to study German?
—Yes, he intends_______. (1998上海)
A. / B. to C. soD. that
2. —Would you like to go to the Grand Theatre with me tonight?
A. Yes, I’d like to go to the Grand Theatre
B. I’d like to, but I have an exam tomorrow
C. No, I won’t
D. That’s right
3. —You should have thanked her before you left.
—I meant_______, but when I was leaving, I couldn’t find her anywhere. (2000北京春招)
A. to do B. to C. doing D. doing to
Keys： 1. B。intend to后省略了study German。 2. B。I’d like to后省略了go to the Grand Theatre。 3. B。meant to后省略了have thanked her before I left。
四、 替代词so / not的替代现象
替代词so / not用于避免重复前面所说过的内容。它可与动词believe, do, expect, fear, guess, hope, say, speak, suppose, think等及 I’m afraid连用。
肯定时： 以上动词都可与so搭配；表示否定时： hope只用I hope not.不说I don’t hope so；think, believe, suppose等词可有两种否定形式，即：I think not.或I don’t think so. 例如：
—Is he going to study abroad?
—I believe so. (so = he is going to study abroad.)
1. Much of the power of the trade unions has been lost. _______, their political influence should be very great. (2006广东)
A. As a result B. As usual C. Even so D. So far
2. —You haven’t lost the ticket, have you?
—_______. I know it’s not easy to get another one at the moment. (2004江苏)
A. I hope not B. Yes, I have
C. I hope so D. Yes, I’m afraid so
3. —The boys are not doing a good job at all,are they?
A. I guess not so B. I don’t guess
C. I don’t guess so D. I guess not
4. —I believe we’ve met somewhere before.
—No, _______. (2000北京春季)
A. it isn’t the same B. it can’t be true
C. I don’t think so D. I’d rather not
Keys： 1. C。Even so，即使这样。2. A。根据it’s not easy to get another one at the moment可知说话者很珍惜。3. C。I don’t guess so.相当于I don’t think so.。4. B。It can’t be true. 这不可能是真的。
Should it rain tomorrow, we would have to put off the visit to the Yangpu Bridge.
1. _______fired, your health care and other benefits will not be immediately cut off. (2006湖北)
A. Would you be B. Should you be
C. Could you be D. Might you be
简析： 答案是B。从句可还原为：If you should be fired，省略了if，故should前置。
2. _______for the free tickets, I would not have gone to the films so often. (1995上海)
A. If it is not B. Were
C. Had it not been D. If they were not
简析： 答案是C。从句可还原为：If it had not been，省略了if，故had前置。
1. —I hate talking with that guy. Look, he is coming. What should I do?
—Don’t speak until_______.
A. speaking B. spoken to
C. spoken D. speaking to
2. —Why do you want the book so much?
A. Studying B. Studies
C. Studied D. To study
3. I wonder why you won’t do it as_______. Its the third time you have done so.
A. told to B. be told
C. told you D. you told
4. The dying old man opened his mouth as if_______something.
A. to say B. saying
C. to have said D. was saying
5. This is an illness that can result in total blindness if_______.
A. to leave untreating B. left untreated
C. leaving untreating D. is left untreated
6. —I didn’t do well in the last English test.How about you?
A. I’ll do better next time
B. I like English, though
C. A lot better
D. Even worse
7. —You seem to have lost your way. _______?
—I’m looking for Wangfujing Street.
A. What for B. Need help C. Why so D. Where to
8. —Which would you like, chicken or fish?
A. I don’t think so. B. What if?
C. Both. D. Neither can I.
9. You may take them all home_______.
A. if possible B. if can
C. unless so D. even if you can
10. Doctors have said that as many as 50% of patients don’t take medicine_______.
A. like directed B. to be directed
C. as directed D. so that directed
11. The man stopped from time to time_______whether he was being followed.
A. as if foundB. as to find
C. as if to findD. when found
12. To tell the truth, I won’t go to the party_______.
A. so as to invite B. even if invited
C. if inviting D. if invite
13. Water, _______enough, can change into vapour quickly.
A. when heated
C. though to be heated
D. when is heated
1. B。状语从句的省略形式，其完整句子是Don’t speak until you are spoken to.
2. D。省略主句保留关键词，其完整句子是：I want the book very much in order to study.
3. A。状语从句的省略形式，其完整形式为as you are told to.
4. A。状语从句的省略形式，其完整形式为：as if he wanted to say ...
5. B。状语从句的省略形式，其完整形式是： ... if it is left untreated.
6. D。状语从句的省略形式，其完整句为：I did even worse in the test.
7. B。语境省略。Need help? = Do you need help?
8. C。由题意知C项可以恢复为：I’d like them both / both of them。
9. A。状语从句的省略，由题意知其完整形式为if it is possible.
10. C。根据题意可知，其对应完整句子应为：as they are directed。
11. C。该题对应的完整形式是：as if he wanted to find ...
12. B。该题是状语从句的省略形式，其完整句是 ... even if I am invited。
13. A。该题是被动语态的状语从句的省略形式，其完整形式是when it is heated enough。
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